Gallijas Locusta - Nero bēdīgi slavenais indes ražotājs

Gallijas Locusta - Nero bēdīgi slavenais indes ražotājs


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Inde vienmēr bija klusais slepkava. Visā viduslaiku un klasiskajā vēsturē indēm un tiem, kas prata to pagatavot, bija milzīga loma daudzu tiesu iekšējās lietās. No slepkavām baidījās, un ārstniecības augi tika nodarbināti, lai izdomātu pēc iespējas nāvējošākas indes - visu nolūku likvidēt konkurentus, ienaidniekus un uzurpatorus. Indētājs, par kuru mēs šodien runājam, ir viens no bēdīgi slavenākajiem klasiskajā vēsturē - Gallijas Locusta.

Šī sieviete, strādājot par iecienīto Romas imperatora Nero indētāju, izbeidza daudzas dzīvības ar savām nāvējošajām indēm. No Gallijas mežiem līdz pat Romas marmora pagalmiem šīs sievietes stāsts ir patiesa nāvējoša drāma. Locusta, ko plaši uzskatīja par vienu no senākajiem dokumentētajiem sērijveida slepkavām, noteikti bija nāvējoša dāma. Bet vai viņas stāstā ir vairāk? Atriebties? Naids? Bēdas? Mēs gatavojamies uzzināt.

Kas ietekmēja Locusta Gallijas darbību? ( atklājās pēc viļņa)

Agrākais vēsturiskais pieminētais Gallijas Locusta

Senajā Romā indes bija parasts ierocis, ko bieži izmantoja ar viltīgu prasmi. Imperatori tos izmantoja, lai atbrīvotos no nevēlamiem pretendentiem un troņmantiniekiem, likvidētu pārliecinātos ienaidniekus vai atbrīvotos no nevēlamiem komandieriem. Slepkavība ar indi deva mazāk iesaistīšanās un labāku alibi.

Nebija vajadzīgi ieroči vai asinsizliešana, jo slepkava kritiskā brīdī varēja vienkārši ievietot indi pārtikā vai dzērienā. Bailes no šādas slepkavības Romas sabiedrībā kļuva tik plaši izplatītas, ka daudzas svarīgas personas - galvenokārt imperatori - nolīga īpašus kalpus, kas darbotos kā pārtikas degustatori. Tie bieži bija arī pavāri.

Un, lai atrastu pienācīgu augu audzētāju un indes ražotāju, Romas imperatori nevilcinājās ieskatīties visos savas impērijas nostūros. Un tā arī notika, ka savas Gallijas provinces zemēs viņi atklāja prasmīgu sievieti, kas labi pārzina savvaļas augu, augu un indes izmantošanu. Locusta bija viņas vārds, un viņa, visticamāk, tika sagūstīta (kādreiz pirms mūsu ēras 54. gada) un nogādāta Romā, kur tiks izmantotas viņas nāvējošās prasmes.

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Locusta dzīvoja Gallijā, pirms romieši viņu sagūstīja 54. gadā. (Arhivārs /Adobe Stock)

Un viņas kā indes veidotāja prasme tika ātri atpazīta. Tā nu sanāca, ka Gallijas Locusta tika pieņemta darbā par Imperiālās tiesas oficiālo indētāju. Tur viņa kļuva par imperatora Nero mīļāko, kuram, kā mēs visi zinām, bija īpaša pieķeršanās visām nāvējošajām un nepāra lietām.

Locusta noteikti bija vēsturiska persona, un to, ko mēs varam uzzināt par viņas darbiem, dokumentēja senie vēsturnieki Tacitus, Juvenal, Cassius Dio un Suetonius.

Viņa pirmo reizi tiek pieminēta dienestā Agrippinai Minorei, vienai no ievērojamākajām Romas Hulio-Klaudianu dinastijas sieviešu figūrām, un topošā imperatora Nero mātei.

Ķeizariene Agrippina padarīja Loculu no Gallijas par savu indes ekspertu, un daži avoti apgalvo, ka ar viņas palīdzību ķeizariene sazvērējās, lai nogalinātu savu vīru Klaudiju. Pirms tas notika, Locusta tiek minēts kā ieslodzīts 54. gadā pēc Kristus un tiek notiesāts par apsūdzību saindēšanā nuper veneficii damnata ).

Tieši šajā brīdī Agrippina izmantoja Locusta nāvējošos pakalpojumus. Pēdējais ražoja indi, lai nogalinātu Klaudiju, kas it kā tika apkaisīts ar sēnēm viņa vakariņās. Ir arī iespējams, ka pati sēne bija inde, Amanita Phalloides, tā saukto Death Cap sēni.

Death Cap sēnes. (Archenzo/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Šķiet, ka Agripinas ietekme bija diezgan ievērojama, jo viņai izdevās pret Klaudiju pietuvinātos. Tā nu tas bija, ka saindēto ēdienu imperatoram iedeva viņa paša pārtikas degustētājs - Halots. Bet inde nebija pietiekami spēcīga, un nāve tika izvilkta.

Pēc tam Klaudiju pabeidza viņa paša ārsts Gaijs Stertinius Ksenofons, kurš iebāza spalvu imperatora mutē, lai izraisītu vemšanu. Bet pati spalva bija pārklāta ar vairāk indēm, un tas bija tas, kas nogalināja Klaudiju. Kad imperators bija aizgājis, Agrippina pavēra ceļu savam dēlam Nero.

Nero un Agrippina. Agripina vainago savu jauno dēlu Nero ar lauru vainagu. Viņa nēsā pārpilnības raga zīmi, laimes un bagātības simbolu, un viņš nēsā Romas komandiera bruņas un apmetni, ķiveri zemē pie kājām. Aina attiecas uz Nero pievienošanos imperatoram 54. gadā un pieder pirms 59. gada, kad Nerons nogalināja Agrippinu. Muzejs Afrodīzijā, mūsdienu Turcijā. (Karloss Delgado/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Locusta of Gaul Nero kalpošanā

Nākamo reizi par Locustu dzirdam Nero valdīšanas laikā, tikai gadu pēc Klaudija nāves 55. gadā. Vairāki avoti norāda, ka Lokusta tika ieslodzīta apsūdzībā par Klaudija nāvi, bet jaunais imperators Nero šeit apžēloja un atkal viņu pieņēma darbā. Viņam vajadzēja viņas nāvējošos pakalpojumus, jo Klaudijam bija dēls, jauns zēns, vārdā Britaniks. Nero baidījās, ka zēns kļūs par draudiem viņa valdīšanai un uzurpēs troni, kaut arī viņš nebija pat pusaudzis.

Locustai vajadzēja izdomāt indi, kas pēc iespējas ātrāk nogalinātu Britanniku. Vēsturiskie avoti norāda, ka Locusta izmantoja Atropa Belladonna , plaši pazīstams kā nāvējošs naktstauriņš, un, iespējams, tika izmantots arsēns, vējzirnis, mandrela, akonīts no mūka kapuces, kolhikss, vālītes un īves ekstrakts. Tās bija vienas no visefektīvākajām un pazīstamākajām indēm Senajā Romā.

Deadly Nightshade auga Atropa belladonna lapas un ogas. ( espy3008 /Adobe Stock)

Kad pienāca laiks saindēt Britaniku, šķiet, ka tas neizdevās arī pirmo reizi. Šķiet, ka Locusta izvēlējās arsēnu, bet lietoja pārāk mazu devu, lai nāve šķistu dabiskāka un nevis aizdomīgāka. Nero arī vēlējās to darīt piesardzīgi, taču bija nikns, kad slepkavība neizdevās.

Viņš personīgi pukstēja Locustu par viņas neveiksmi un lika viņai dot visu devu. Nero vairs nerūpējās par piesardzību. Un, lai nodrošinātu indes efektivitāti, Nero lika Locustai to pārbaudīt bērniem. Kad nāves gadījumi bija vai nu pārāk lēni, vai inde bija neefektīva, viņi to palielināja, līdz bija apmierināti ar rezultātiem.

Imperatora Nero attēlojums ar tīģeri un Romu degošu fonā Lielā ugunsgrēka laikā. (Publisks Domain)

Tādējādi Britannicus tika novietots vakariņās. Viņam atnesa karstu dzērienu, kas bija jānogaršo viņa ēdienu degustētājam. Kad viss bija kārtībā, Britannicus pavēlēja to atdzesēt, kas tika nekavējoties izdarīts ar saindētu ūdeni. Šoreiz Locusta inde iedarbojās. Britannicus nekavējoties cieta no sekām, Tacitus paziņojot, ka zēns “uzreiz zaudēja gan balsi, gan elpu”.

Turklāt jauno Britanniku visu mūžu mocīja epilepsijas lēkmes, un Nerons to izmantoja kā iemeslu, apgalvojot, ka zēnam ir krampji un viņu nedrīkst aiztikt. Zēns vēlāk mirs.

Pēc šī notikuma Nero bija šķietami apmierināts ar savu galveno indētāju no Gallijas un nolēma viņai piešķirt daudzas prestižas atlīdzības, ieskaitot viņas īpašumus un kalpus. Turklāt viņš sūtīja viņas skolēnus, kuriem bija jāiemāca indes izgatavošanas veidi.

Vairāki avoti norāda, ka Nero piešķīra Locusta atļauju pārbaudīt viņas dažādas indes uz vergiem, dzīvniekiem un notiesātiem noziedzniekiem, kas viņai tika nosūtīti bieži. Ja tas ir pareizi, tad ir pilnīgi droši, ka Gallijas Lokusta patiešām bija viens no pirmajiem dokumentētajiem sērijveida slepkavām, aukstasinīgi nogalinot daudzus cilvēkus.

Džozefs-Noels Silvestrs “Lokusta testē indi uz vergu” (1870–1880).

Bet viss, kas galu galā beidzās - bagātība, pamanāmība, aizsardzība. Kad Nero izdarīja pašnāvību 68. gadā, Locusta noteikti zināja, ka viņas stāvoklis tikai pasliktināsies. Bez imperatora aizsardzības un visiem labi zināmajiem darbiem viņa bija apdraudēta.

Kad pie varas nāca jaunais imperators Galba, viņš pavēlēja viņu sagrābt. Kopā ar vairākiem brīvprātīgajiem, kas bija Nero tuvie līdzgaitnieki, ieskaitot Patrobiju, Narcisu, Heliosu un citus, saskaņā ar Cassius Dio, Locusta tika notiesāts uz nāvi.

Kasijs Dio nosauc viņu un visus pārējos šajā kategorijā kā “putas, kas parādījās virspusē Nerona dienās”. Viņa tika vilkta pa Romas ielām un pēc tam izpildīta nāvessods. Gallijas Locusta un viņas indīgās mākslas vairs nebija.

Indes un karaliskās intrigas Romas galmā

Bet jābrīnās par Gallijas Locustu kā personu, tās motīviem un nodomiem. Šīs ir lietas, kuras mēs nevaram mācīties no saviem vēstures avotiem, bet mēs joprojām varam tās apspriest. Vai viņai varēja būt kas vairāk par tīru motivāciju un varas slāpēm?

Pirmkārt, mēs varam pieņemt, ka viņa nesa šo epitetu no Gallijas , Locusta ir dzimusi galliešu valoda. Var gadīties, ka viņa tika sagūstīta un padarīta par vergu sākotnēji, pirms tika atzītas viņas prasmes ar garšaugiem. Arī no tā mēs varam secināt, ka, iespējams, Locusta motīvi bija personīga atriebība, alkas iznīcināt iekarotājus, kas viņu aizveda gūstā un aizveda no viņas mājām.

Tā kā viņai bija līdzekļi - tautas zināšanas par augiem un dabu - Locusta varēja izmantot savas zināšanas tādā veidā, kas ļautu viņai atriebties romiešiem - saindējot tos. Tas būtu piemērots vienkārša galliešu verga personīgā kara akts un ideāls fons slepkavam - bez siltām jūtām pret tiem, kuru dzīvības viņai vajadzēja atņemt.

Lokusta pārbauda indi vergam Nero priekšā. (Sébastopol76/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

Indes lietošana romiešu laikos nebija dīvainība. Daudzi paļāvās uz viņiem un nodarbojās ar šīm nāvējošajām mākslām. Par to rakstīja daudzi mūsdienu vēsturnieki, tostarp Suetonijs, Galens, Nikanders, Plīnijs Vecākais, Skribonijs Larguss un Dioskorīds. Kopumā bija trīs veidu indes - minerālu, augu un dzīvnieku indes. Minerālvielu sastāvā bija arsēns, antimons, dzīvsudrabs, varš un svins, un tie bija nestabili, tāpēc tos izmantoja reti.

Dzīvnieku indes lielākoties bija neefektīvas un bija tautas pasaku produkts, un tajās bija iekļauti tādi dīvaini izdomājumi kā buļļa asinis, krupji un salamandras. Protams, bija arī indīgi zirnekļi, čūskas un skorpioni, taču tos bija grūti lietot un līdz ar to reti.

Bet zāļu inde izrādījās daudzveidīga, efektīva un viegli lietojama un slēpjama. Parasti tie bija augu atvasinājumi ar Belladonna alkaloīdiem, piemēram, henbane, datura, mandrake vai nāvējoša naktstauriņa.

Vēsturnieki mums arī stāsta par vairākiem saindēšanās gadījumiem un pat precīzi nosauc, kuri no tiem tika izmantoti aktā. Tā, piemēram, mums ir populārā Kanidijas figūra no Horācija dzejoļiem, kuri priekšroku deva hemlokam medū kā indi. Mēs arī zinām, ka Seneka pats dzēra hemlokus, savukārt Ovidijs akonītu min kā “vīramātes indi”.

Hemloks. (Djtanng/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

Bet, protams, tieši Imperiālā tiesa galvenokārt izmantoja indes. Izdzīvojušo piemēru ir daudz, bet mēs minēsim tikai dažus. Piemēram, mums ir Drususs, Tibērija dēls un mantinieks, kuru lēnām saindēja viņa sieva Klaudija Līvija Džūlija un viņas līdzdalībnieks Lūcijs Aēlijs Sejanuss.

Protams, ir Klaudija nāve no brāļameitas un sievas Agripinas rokām. Piso laika gaitā saindēja arī Nero Klaudija Drusa dēlu Germaniku, prasmīgu romiešu ģenerāli. Germanika sieva Agripina vecākā bija bailes no saindēšanās un bija piesardzīga pret visu, ko viņa ēda.

Un daži labi pazīstami imperatori vai nu izdarīja, vai mēģināja slepkavības ar indi, tostarp Domitian, Commodus, Caracalla, Caligula, Nero, Elagabalus un Vitellius. Labi zināma vēsturiska atsauce stāsta, ka Kaligulai bija milzīgs bagāžnieks, kas piepildīts ar dažādām indēm, un ka Nerons pats nesa īpašu indi, ko bija izgatavojis Gallijas Locusta, gadījumam, ja viņam nāksies izdarīt pašnāvību.

Kaligula arī izdarīja vai mēģināja nogalināt ar indi. (Michiel2005/ CC BY NC 2.0 )

Nerons lielā mērā paļāvās uz indēm, un, iespējams, tāpēc nosauca Locustu par savu galveno indētāju. Viņš saindēja savu tanti Domitiju Lepidu Majoru un sagrāba viņas īpašumus. Sieviete cieta no ārkārtējiem aizcietējumiem - iespējams, no indes - Nero apmeklēja viņu un nekavējoties lika ievadīt letālu caurejas līdzekļa devu.

  • Tas viņus izdzen no prāta: pirmā lielā saindēšanās Senajā Romā
  • Indes paranoja: seno alķīmiķu mītiskie pretlīdzekļi
  • 10 senie sērijveida slepkavas, kas paredzēja Džeku Ripperu

Tiek apgalvots, ka viņš bija tas, kurš saindēja savu kādreizējo galveno padomnieku Seksu Afraniju Burrusu, aizstājot zāles ar indēm. No šādiem piemēriem mēs varam saprast, ka inde bija viena no galvenajām slepkavības metodēm Senajā Romā. Klusais slepkava parasti bija negaidīts un noķēra savus upurus. Un tādām sievietēm kā Locusta no Gallijas bija daudz darba.

Saindēšanās ar godājamo pagātni

Locusta nebija vienīgā saindētāja sieviete Senajā Romā. Horācijs piemin nāvējošu sieviešu trio, kas bija bēdīgi slavens ar savu mākslu dzērienos - Martina, Lokusta un Kanidija - Romas melnās atraitnes. Šāda amorālu ieroču izmantošana parāda skaidru pāreju no daudz cienījamākajiem un poētiskākajiem Cēzara, Cicerona un pirms tiem laikiem, kur bija izplatīta cēlā nāve.

Līdzīgi kā Nero, alkatība un varas cīņas kļuva niknas - un šādā vidē valda inde.


Locusta un Nero mēģina indi vergā - fonda ilustrācija

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Prokrusts: bēdīgi slavenais sērijveida slepkava no grieķu mitoloģijas

Pirmais senais sērijveida slepkava, kas parādījies populārajā kultūrā, atrodams grieķu mitoloģijā. Bēdīgi slavenais sērijveida slepkava Prokrusts, saukts arī par nestuvēm, ir leģendārs slepkava no Atikas, kas turēja māju pie aizņemta ceļa, kur piedāvāja viesmīlību garāmgājējiem. Viņš parasti aicināja ceļotājus mierinošā maltītē un nakts atpūtā savā “īpašajā” dzelzs gultā.

Karikatūra par Prokrustu, bēdīgi slaveno sērijveida slepkavu no grieķu mitoloģijas, un viņa leģendāro Prokrusa gultu. Attēls nāk no 19. gadsimta vācu satīriskā žurnāla. ( Publisks domēns )

Nezinot savus aizmirstos upurus, ja tie bija īsāki par gultu, viņš izstiepa viņu, āmurot vai saliekot ķermeni tā, lai tas būtu piemērots. Alternatīvi, ja upuris bija garāks par gultu, viņš nogrieza viņiem kājas, lai tie ietilptu. Kā jūs droši vien saprotat, abos gadījumos šīs briesmīgās spīdzināšanas dēļ upuris nomira neapskaužamā nāvē.

Par laimi, Prokrustu ar savu metodi iznīcināja jaunākais un stiprākais Tesējs, kurš vēlāk noslepkavoja arī Krētas Minotauru. Prokrusts joprojām tiek apspriests arī šodien, pateicoties viņa “prokrusta gultai”, kas ir kļuvusi par proverbālu patvaļīgu un vardarbīgu piespiešanu kādam vai kaut kam iekļauties nedabiskā shēmā vai modelī.

Tēzejs cīnījās ar bēdīgi slaveno sērijveida slepkavu Prokrustesu, kā tas attēlots uz bēniņiem sarkanā figūras kylixā no aptuveni 440. līdz 430. gadam pirms mūsu ēras. (Britu muzejs / CC BY 2.5 )


Senie sērijveida slepkavas

Džeks Šķēlējs un H. H. Holmss bieži tiek dēvēti par pirmajiem sērijveida slepkavām, bet vai zinājāt, ka pirms viņiem ir tikpat nežēlīgi cilvēki? Šeit ir 6 vēsturiski sērijveida slepkavas, kas visi darbojās pirms 17. gadsimta.

Saskaņā ar grieķu mitoloģiju Prokrustam piederēja īpašums pie aizņemta ceļa Atikā, Grieķijā. Viņš “laipni” aicinātu garāmgājējus un ceļotājus atpūsties un nakšņot savā vietā, piedāvājot dzelzs gultu. Ja jūs nederējāt, neuztraucieties! Prokrusts izstieptu vai amputētu ceļotāju līdz gultas garumam, kas viņus nogalinātu. Viņa slepkavības beidzot beidzās, kad mītiskais Tēzejs, izmantojot pret viņu savu metodi, deva Prokrustam nobaudīt savas zāles! Kamēr vēsturnieki joprojām apspriež Prokrusta eksistenci, nākamie sērijveida slepkavas ir reāli.

Sieviešu romiešu indes gredzens

Kamēr Prokrusts darīja savu darbu Grieķijā, Senajā Romā notika kaut kas dīvains. Apmēram 331. gadā pirms mūsu ēras vīrieši visur sāka nomirt. Sākotnēji tika uzskatīts, ka tas ir mēris, bet izmeklēšana atklāja, ka tā ir inde! Šīs slepkavības bija saistītas ar vairāk nekā 100 matronu grupu, un vadītājas bija 2 aristokrātiskas sievietes vārdā Sergija un Kornēlija. Ironiski, bet sievietes apgalvoja, ka dod vīriešiem zāles, un, kad viņus pamudināja dzert pašu gatavotus dzērienus, lai pierādītu savu nevainību, viņas viegli dzēra un pēc tam nomira.

Liu Pengli ir pazīstams kā pirmais reģistrētais sērijveida slepkava vēsturē. Hanas princis, Pengli terora valdīšana sākās 2. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras un ilga 2 gadu desmitus. Viņš bieži devās “ekspedīcijās” kopā ar 10–30 jauniem vīriešiem, vergiem un noziedzniekiem, kur nogalināja cilvēkus un nozaga viņu mantas. Viņam bija vairāk nekā 100 apstiprinātu upuru, un viņam būtu bijis daudz vairāk, ja upura dēls nebūtu brīdinājis imperatoru. Par laimi Pengli, imperators bija viņa onkulis, kurš nevarēja izturēt viņa nogalināšanu. Tā vietā viņam tika atņemts tituls, viņš kļuva par kopēju un tika izraidīts no valstības.

Anuradhapura Anula

Ievērojama vēsturiski nežēlīga slepkava, karaliene Anula valdīja Šrilanku no 47. līdz 42. gadam pirms mūsu ēras. Viņa ir ievērojama ar to, ka ir pirmā karaliene Šrilankas vēsturē, kurai ir bijusi liela vara un autoritāte, kā arī ir pirmā valsts vadītāja Āzijā. Viņas stāsts ir piepildīts ar lietām, saindēšanos un slepkavībām, un viņa noteikti nebija cilvēks, ar kuru sajaukt. Kopumā viņa nogalināja visus 4 savus vīrus, kā arī dēlu. Modelis bija: izveidojiet romānu, nogaliniet savu pašreizējo vīru un apprecieties ar jauno vīrieti, tad iemīlieties kādā citā un nogaliniet pašreizējo vīru utt. Galu galā Anula tika gāzta un sadedzināta dzīva, izbeidzot saindēšanās sāgu.

Gallijas Locusta

Vēl viena sieviete, kas labi pārzina indes, Locusta pirmā gadsimta laikā darbojās Romas impērijā. Bija zināms, ka viņa arī indē sava prieka pēc, izmantojot savas prasmes botānikā un ārstniecības augos, lai cilvēkiem dotu nāvējošus sirdslēkmes. Viņas talants padarīja viņu par ķeizara Nero indes ražotāju, kurš sūtīja topošos indētājus mācīties no viņas. Lokusta esot arī piedalījusies Klaudija un Britanika slepkavībās. Tomēr, kad Nerons nomira un Galba piecēlās pie imperatora, viņas aizsardzība beidzās. Viņai tika ātri izpildīts nāvessods, ieejot vēsturē kā “pirmā sērijveida slepkava sieviete Rietumu vēsturē”.

Žils de Raiss

Žils de Raiss bija franču muižnieks un bruņinieks 15. gadsimtā. Viņa ievērojamie sasniegumi ir cīņa līdzās Džoanai Arkai un arī sērijveida bērnu slepkava. Kad viņš aizgāja no militārā dienesta, Žils ķērās pie okultās un alķīmijas, mēģinot izsaukt dēmonu, lai padarītu viņu bagātu. Viņš arī sāka nolaupīt un slepkavot bērnus. Viņš beidzot tika noķerts 1440. gadā, un pēc atzīšanās vairāk nekā 140 bērnu slepkavībā viņš un viņa līdzdalībnieks tika pakārti. Pārsteidzošā pagriezienā daudzi ir apšaubījuši viņa atzīšanās ticamību, izvirzot teoriju, ka viņa tiesas spriedums bija katoļu baznīcas atriebības akts- līdzīgs Džoanam Arkam. Jebkurā gadījumā pastrādātie noziegumi ir šausminoši neatkarīgi no tā, kurš bija vainīgais.


Augu cienītāju pirmsākumi

Lokusta dzimusi pirmajā gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras vienā no Romas provincēm, ko sauca par Galliju, tagadējās Francijas teritorijā. Pirmie laukos pavadītie gadi deva viņai iespēju uzzināt diezgan daudz par augu vēsturi un visiem apkārt esošajiem augiem.

Ierodoties Romā, viņa ātri un efektīvi saprata pilsētas valsts kontekstu un atmosfēru. Romas iedzīvotājus raksturoja divas galvenās lietas: alkatība un ambīcijas.

Daudzi romieši tolaik slepkavību padarīja par vienkāršu veidu, kā atbrīvoties no politiskajiem konkurentiem un turīgajiem radiniekiem, taču tam bija jāizskatās, ka upuris nomira dabisku iemeslu dēļ.

Skaidri izprotot savu tirgu, Locusta sāka sniegt šiem cilvēkiem savas zināšanas un zināšanas, kļūstot par profesionālu indētāju.

Viņa ļoti bieži tika arestēta par savu darbību, bet kaut kā vienmēr izdevās izkļūt no cietuma, pateicoties saviem turīgajiem un ietekmīgajiem klientiem.


Saturs

Nerons piedzima Lūcijs Domitiuss Ahenobarbuss 37. gada 15. decembrī mūsu ēkā Antiumā (mūsdienu Anzio). [9] [10]: 87 Viņš bija vientuļais bērns, politiķa Gnaja Domitiusa Ahenobarbus un Agrippina jaunākā dēls. Viņa māte Agrippina bija trešā Romas imperatora Kaligula māsa. [11]: 5 Nerons bija arī bijušā imperatora Augusta (pēcnācēja no Augusta vienīgās meitas Jūlijas) mazmazmazdēls. [12]: 2

Senais biogrāfs Suetonijs, kurš kritiski izturējās pret Nero senčiem, rakstīja, ka imperators Augusts pārmeta Nero vectēvam, ka viņš negodīgi izbauda vardarbīgas gladiatoru spēles. Saskaņā ar Jirgena Malica teikto, Suetonius stāsta, ka Nero tēvs bija zināms kā "dusmīgs un brutāls", un ka abi "izbaudīja ratu sacīkstes un teātra izrādes tādā mērā, kas neatbilst viņu stāvoklim". [13]: 3

Nero tēvs Domitiuss nomira 40. gadā. Dažus gadus pirms tēvu nāves viņa tēvs bija iesaistīts nopietnā politiskā skandālā. [13]: 3 Viņa māte un divas pārdzīvojušās māsas Agripina un Džūlija Liviljas tika izsūtītas uz kādu nomaļu salu Vidusjūrā. [12]: 4 Viņa māte tika izraidīta par sazvērestību imperatora Kaligula gāšanai. [9] Nero mantojums tika atņemts no viņa, un viņš tika nosūtīts dzīvot pie tēvas tēva Domitijas Lepidas Jaunākās, vēlākā imperatora Klaudija trešās sievas Mesalinas mātes. [14]: 11

Pēc Kaligulas nāves Klaudijs kļuva par jauno Romas imperatoru. [15] Nero māte apprecējās ar Klaudiju 49. gadā, kļūstot par viņa ceturto sievu. [iv] [9] Līdz 49. gada februārim viņa māte bija pierunājusi Klaudiju adoptēt savu dēlu Nero. [v]

Pēc tam, kad imperators pieņēma Nero, "Klaudijs" kļuva par viņa vārda daļu: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. [vi] [16] Klaudijam tika izdotas zelta monētas, lai atzīmētu adopciju. [17]: 119 Klasikas profesors Džošija Osgūds ir rakstījis, ka "monētas, izplatot un veidojot attēlus, parādīja, ka top jauns līderis". [18]: 231 Tomēr Deivids Šoters atzīmēja, ka, neraugoties uz notikumiem Romā, Nero māsas brālis Britaniks 50. gadu sākumā bija ievērojamāks provinču koināžās. [16]: 52

Nero oficiāli ienāca sabiedriskajā dzīvē kā pieaugušais 51. gadā apmēram 14 gadu vecumā. [16]: 51 Kad viņam kļuva 16 gadu, Nero apprecējās ar Klaudija meitu (viņa māsu) Klaudiju Oktāviju. No 51. uguns. [18]: 231

Klaudijs nomira 54. gadā, daudzi senie vēsturnieki apgalvo, ka viņu saindējusi Agripina. [19] Šoters ir rakstījis, ka "Klaudija nāvi mūsu ēras 54. gadā parasti uzskata par notikumu, kuru paātrināja Agripina sakarā ar pazīmēm, ka Klaudijs izrāda jaunu pieķeršanos savam dabiskajam dēlam". Viņš arī atzīmē, ka starp senajiem avotiem romiešu vēsturnieks Džozefs bija unikāli atturīgs, aprakstot saindēšanos kā baumu. [16]: 53

Mūsdienu avoti saindēšanās stāstos atšķiras. Tacitus stāsta, ka indes ražotājs Locusta sagatavojis toksīnu, ko imperatoram pasniedza viņa kalps Halots. Tacīts arī raksta, ka Agrippina noorganizēja Klaudija ārstam Ksenofonam ievadīt indes gadījumā, ja imperators izdzīvos. [16]: 53 Suetonijs dažās detaļās atšķiras, bet arī norāda uz Halotu un Agrippinu. [vii] Tāpat kā Tacitus, Cassius Dio raksta, ka indi sagatavojusi Locusta, bet Dio kontā to administrē Agrippina, nevis Halotus. In Apokolocitoze, Seneka Jaunākā sēnes nemaz nemin. [16]: 54 Ne visi mūsdienu zinātnieki pieņem Agripinas iesaistīšanos Klaudija nāvē. [21]: 589

Pirms Klaudija nāves Agripina manevrēja, lai noņemtu Klaudija dēlu audzinātājus, lai aizstātu viņus ar viņas izvēlētajiem audzinātājiem. Viņa arī spēja pārliecināt Klaudiju aizstāt divus pretoriešu gvardes prefektus (kuri tika turēti aizdomās par Klaudija dēla atbalstīšanu) ar Afraniju Burrusu (Nero nākotnes ceļvedis). [14]: 13 Tā kā Agrippina bija aizstājusi apsardzes virsniekus ar viņai lojāliem vīriešiem, Nero vēlāk varēja uzņemties varu bez starpgadījumiem. [9] [22]: 417

Lielākā daļa no tā, ko mēs zinām par Nero valdīšanu, nāk no trim senajiem rakstniekiem: Tacitus, Suetonius un grieķu vēsturnieka Cassius Dio. [23]: 37

Pēc šo seno vēsturnieku domām, Nero celtniecības projekti bija pārāk ekstravaganti, un lielais izdevumu skaits Nero vadībā lika Itālijai "pilnībā izsmelties ar naudas iemaksām" un "provinces bija izpostītas". [24] [25] Tomēr mūsdienu vēsturnieki atzīmē, ka šis periods bija pilns ar deflāciju un ka, visticamāk, Nero izdevumi bija sabiedrisko darbu projektu un labdarības veidā, kuru mērķis bija mazināt ekonomiskās problēmas. [26]

Agrīna valdīšana

Nerons kļuva par imperatoru 54. gadā, sešpadsmit gadu vecumā. Tas padarīja viņu par jaunāko vienīgo imperatoru līdz Elagabalam, kurš kļuva par imperatoru 14 gadu vecumā 218. gadā. [2] Pirmie pieci Nero valdīšanas gadi tika aprakstīti kā Quinquennium Neronis ar Trajana teikto šīs frāzes interpretācija ir strīdīgs jautājums starp zinātniekiem. [12]: 17 Kā Ēģiptes faraons Nerons pieņēma karalisko titulu Autors Nerons Heqaheqau Meryasetptah Tjemaahuikhasut Wernakhtubaqet Heqaheqau Setepennenu Merur ('Imperators Nerons, valdnieku valdnieks, kuru izraudzījās Ptahs, Īzisa mīļotais, izturīgā bruņotā, kas skāra svešās zemes, uzvarēja Ēģipti, valdnieku valdnieks, izvēlēts no mūķenes, kas viņu mīl'). [27]

Nero skolotāja Seneka sagatavoja Nero pirmo runu Senātā. Šīs runas laikā Nero runāja par "iepriekšējā režīma ļaunumu novēršanu". [12]: 16 H.H.Skullards raksta, ka "viņš apsolīja savā principā ievērot Augustāna modeli, izbeigt visus slepenos tiesas procesus. intra cubiculum, lai tiktu galā ar galma iecienītāko un brīvprātīgo korupciju, un, pirmkārt, respektētu Senāta un atsevišķu senatoru privilēģijas. "[28]: 257 Viņš cienīja senatoru autonomiju, kas viņu atšķīra no Kaligulas un Klaudija. labi uzņēma Romas Senāts. [12]: 18

Sullards raksta, ka Nero māte Agrippina "domāja valdīt caur savu dēlu". [28]: 257 Agripina noslepkavoja savus politiskos konkurentus: Domitiju Lepīdu, jaunāko, tanti, pie kuras Nerons bija dzīvojis Agripinas trimdas laikā, Markus Junius Silanus, Augusta un Narcisa mazmazdēls. [28]: 257 Viena no agrākajām monētām, ko Nero izlaida savas valdīšanas laikā, parasti parāda Agrippinu monētas aversa pusē, un tā tiks rezervēta imperatora portretam. Senāts arī atļāva Agripinai divus licorus publisku uzstāšanos laikā - tas bija gods, ko parasti piešķīra tikai tiesnešiem un Vestalis Maxima. [12]: 16 mūsu ēras 55. gadā Nero no amata valsts kasē atcēla Agripinas sabiedroto Markusu Antoniju Pallašu. Šoters par Agripinas attiecību pasliktināšanos ar Nero raksta sekojošo: "Tas, ko Seneka un Burrus, iespējams, uzskatīja par salīdzinoši nekaitīgu Neronā - viņa kultūras centieni un romāns ar vergu meiteni Klaudiju Aktu - liecināja par viņas dēla bīstamo atbrīvošanos no viņas ietekme. " [14]: 12 Britannikuss tika saindēts pēc tam, kad Agripina draudēja viņam nostāties. [14]: 12 Nerons, kuram bija dēka ar Aktu, [viii] izraidīja Agripinu no pils, kad viņa sāka kopt attiecības ar sievu Oktāviju. [28]: 257

Jirgens Malics raksta, ka senie avoti nesniedz nekādus skaidrus pierādījumus, lai novērtētu Nero personīgās iesaistīšanās politikā apmēru viņa valdīšanas pirmajos gados. Viņš apraksta Nero nepārprotami piedēvētās politikas kā "labi domātus, bet nekompetentus priekšstatus", piemēram, Nero neveiksmīgo iniciatīvu atcelt nodokļus 58. gadā. Zinātnieki parasti atzīst Nero padomniekus Burrusu un Senecu par šo gadu administratīvajiem panākumiem. Malics raksta, ka vēlākos gados Nero panikā, kad krīzes laikā viņam pašam bija jāpieņem lēmumi. [12]: 19

Matricide

Senās Grieķijas un Romas Oksfordas enciklopēdija piesardzīgi atzīmē, ka Nero iemesli nogalināt savu māti 59. gadā nav pilnībā saprotami. [9] Saskaņā ar Tacitus teikto, konflikta avots starp Nero un viņa māti bija Nero romāns ar Poppaea Sabina. In Vēstures Tacitus raksta, ka romāns sākās laikā, kad Poppaja vēl bija precējusies ar Rufriusu Krispinu, bet viņa vēlākajā darbā Annals Tacitus saka, ka Poppaea bija precējusies ar Oto, kad sākās romāns. [11]: 214 collas Annals Tacitus raksta, ka Agripina iebilda pret Nero attiecībām ar Poppaju, jo viņa bija pieķērusies sievai Oktāvijai. Entonijs Barets raksta, ka Tacitus konts Annals "liek domāt, ka Poppaea izaicinājums [Nero] pārvarēja robežu". [11]: 215 Vairāki mūsdienu vēsturnieki ir atzīmējuši, ka Agripinas nāve Poppajai nebūtu sniegusi lielas priekšrocības, jo Nerons neprecējās ar Poppaju tikai pēc mūsu ēras 62. gada. [29] [11]: 215 Barets raksta, ka Poppaea, šķiet, kalpo kā "literāra ierīce, ko izmanto [Tacitus], jo [viņš] neredzēja ticamu izskaidrojumu Nero uzvedībai, kā arī nejauši [kalpoja], lai parādītu, ka Nero, tāpat kā Klaudijs bija nonācis sievietes ļaunprātīgā ietekmē. " [11]: 215 Pēc Suetoniusa teiktā, Nero bija licis savam bijušajam atbrīvotājam Aniketam noorganizēt kuģa avāriju, un Agrippina izdzīvoja pēc vraka, aizpeldēja krastā un viņu izpildīja nāvessods, ziņojot par viņas nāvi kā pašnāvību. [9] [30]

Noraidīt

Mūsdienu zinātnieki uzskata, ka Nero valdīšanas laiks bija veiksmīgs gados pirms Agripinas nāves. Piemēram, Nero ar veiksmīgu ekspedīciju veicināja Nīlas upes avotu izpēti. [31] Pēc Agrippinas trimdas Burrus un Seneka bija atbildīgi par impērijas pārvaldi. [28]: 258 Tomēr Nero "uzvedība kļuva daudz briesmīgāka" pēc mātes nāves. [9]: 22 Miriam T. Griffins liek domāt, ka Nero pagrimums sākās jau mūsu ēras 55. gadā ar viņa brāļa Britanika slepkavību, bet arī atzīmē, ka "Nero zaudēja visu pareizā un nepareizā izjūtu un ar pilnīgu lētticību klausījās glaimos". nāve. [23]: 84 Grifins norāda, ka Tacitus "skaidri norāda Agripinas atcelšanas nozīmi Nero uzvedībā". [23]: 84 [32]

Viņš sāka būvēt jaunu pili - Domus Transitoria - no aptuveni 60. gada p.m.ē. Horti Lolliani uc [34] [35]

62. gadā nomira padomnieks Burruss. [9] Tajā pašā gadā Nerons aicināja sākt savu valdīšanas pirmo valsts nodevības tiesu (maiestas tiesa) pret Antistiju Sosianu. [23]: 53 [36] Viņš izpildīja arī nāves sodu saviem konkurentiem Kornēlijam Sullam un Rubellijam Plautam. [12] Jirgens Malics uzskata, ka tas ir pagrieziena punkts Nero attiecībās ar Romas Senātu. Malics raksta, ka "Nerons atteicās no savaldības, ko viņš bija izrādījis iepriekš, jo uzskatīja, ka Senāta atbalsta kurss solās būt arvien mazāk izdevīgs." [12]

Pēc Burrusa nāves Nero iecēla divus jaunus pretoriešu prefektus: Faenius Rufus un Ofonius Tigellinus. Politiski izolēta Seneka bija spiesta doties pensijā. [28]: 26 Saskaņā ar Tacitus teikto, Nero šķīrās no Octavia neauglības dēļ un izraidīja viņu. [23] : 99 [37] After public protests over Octavia's exile, Nero accused her of adultery with Anicetus and she was executed. [23] : 99 [38]

Great Fire of Rome

The Great Fire of Rome erupted on the night of 18 to 19 July, AD 64. The fire started on the slope of the Aventine overlooking the Circus Maximus. [43] [44]

Tacitus, the main ancient source for information about the fire, wrote that countless mansions, residences and temples were destroyed. [43] Tacitus and Cassius Dio have both written of extensive damage to the Palatine, which has been supported by subsequent archaeological excavations. [45] The fire is reported to have burned for over a week. [28] : 260 It destroyed three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaged seven more. [28] : 260 [46]

Tacitus wrote that some ancient accounts described the fire as an accident, while others had claimed that it was a plot of Nero. Tacitus is the only surviving source which does not blame Nero for starting the fire he says he is "unsure". Pliny the Elder, Suetonius and Cassius Dio all wrote that Nero was responsible for the fire. These accounts give several reasons for Nero's alleged arson like Nero's envy of King Priam and a dislike for the city's ancient construction. Suetonius wrote that Nero started the fire because he wanted the space to build his Golden House. [47] This Golden House or Domus Aurea included lush artificial landscapes and a 30-meter-tall statue of himself, the Colossus of Nero. The size of this complex is debated (from 100 to 300 acres). [48] ​​[49] [50]

Tacitus wrote that Nero accused Christians of starting the fire to remove suspicion from himself. [51] According to this account, many Christians were arrested and brutally executed by "being thrown to the beasts, crucified, and being burned alive". [52]

Suetonius and Cassius Dio alleged that Nero sang the "Sack of Ilium" in stage costume while the city burned. [53] [54] The popular legend that Nero played the fiddle while Rome burned "is at least partly a literary construct of Flavian propaganda [. ] which looked askance on the abortive Neronian attempt to rewrite Augustan models of rule". [17] : 2 In fact, the first recorded reference to the bowed lira, the ancestor of most European stringed instruments, was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih (d. 911).

According to Tacitus, Nero was in Antium during the fire. Upon hearing news of the fire, Nero returned to Rome to organize a relief effort, providing for the removal of bodies and debris, which he paid for from his own funds. [55] [56] After the fire, Nero opened his palaces to provide shelter for the homeless, and arranged for food supplies to be delivered in order to prevent starvation among the survivors. [55]

In the wake of the fire, he made a new urban development plan. Houses built after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads. [57] Nero also built a new palace complex known as the Domus Aurea in an area cleared by the fire. To find the necessary funds for the reconstruction, tributes were imposed on the provinces of the empire. [58] The cost to rebuild Rome was immense, requiring funds the state treasury did not have. Nero devalued the Roman currency for the first time in the Empire's history. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 84 per Roman pound to 96 (3.80 grams to 3.30 grams). He also reduced the silver purity from 99.5% to 93.5%—the silver weight dropping from 3.80 grams to 2.97 grams. Furthermore, Nero reduced the weight of the aureus from 40 per Roman pound to 45 (7.9 grams to 7.2 grams). [59]

Vēlākos gadus

In 65 AD, Gaius Calpurnius Piso, a Roman statesman, organized a conspiracy against Nero with the help of Subrius Flavus and Sulpicius Asper, a tribune and a centurion of the Praetorian Guard. [60] According to Tacitus, many conspirators wished to "rescue the state" from the emperor and restore the Republic. [61] The freedman Milichus discovered the conspiracy and reported it to Nero's secretary, Epaphroditos. [62] As a result, the conspiracy failed and its members were executed including Lucan, the poet. [63] Nero's previous advisor Seneca was accused by Natalis he denied the charges but was still ordered to commit suicide as by this point he had fallen out of favor with Nero. [64]

Nero was said to have kicked Poppaea to death in 65 AD, before she could have his second child. [65] Modern historians, noting the probable biases of Suetonius, Tacitus, and Cassius Dio, and the likely absence of eyewitnesses to such an event, propose that Poppaea may have died after miscarriage or in childbirth. [66] Nero went into deep mourning Poppaea was given a sumptuous state funeral, divine honors, and was promised a temple for her cult. A year's importation of incense was burned at the funeral. Her body was not cremated, as would have been strictly customary, but embalmed after the Egyptian manner and entombed it is not known where. [67]

In 67, Nero married Sporus, a young boy who is said to have greatly resembled Poppaea. Nero had him castrated, tried to make a woman out of him, and married him in a dowry and bridal veil. It is believed that he did this out of regret for his killing of Poppaea. [68] [69]

Revolt of Vindex and Galba and Nero's death

In March 68, Gaius Julius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled against Nero's tax policies. [70] [71] Lucius Verginius Rufus, the governor of Germania Superior, was ordered to put down Vindex's rebellion. [72] In an attempt to gain support from outside his own province, Vindex called upon Servius Sulpicius Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, to join the rebellion and to declare himself emperor in opposition to Nero. [73]

At the Battle of Vesontio in May 68, Verginius' forces easily defeated those of Vindex, and the latter committed suicide. [72] However, after defeating the rebel, Verginius' legions attempted to proclaim their own commander as Emperor. Verginius refused to act against Nero, but the discontent of the legions of Germania and the continued opposition of Galba in Hispania did not bode well for him.

While Nero had retained some control of the situation, support for Galba increased despite his being officially declared a public enemy ("hostis publicus" [74] ). The prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, also abandoned his allegiance to the Emperor and came out in support of Galba.

In response, Nero fled Rome with the intention of going to the port of Ostia and, from there, to take a fleet to one of the still-loyal eastern provinces. According to Suetonius, Nero abandoned the idea when some army officers openly refused to obey his commands, responding with a line from Virgil's Eneids: "Is it so dreadful a thing then to die?" Nero then toyed with the idea of fleeing to Parthia, throwing himself upon the mercy of Galba, or appealing to the people and begging them to pardon him for his past offences "and if he could not soften their hearts, to entreat them at least to allow him the prefecture of Egypt". Suetonius reports that the text of this speech was later found in Nero's writing desk, but that he dared not give it from fear of being torn to pieces before he could reach the Forum. [75]

Nero returned to Rome and spent the evening in the palace. After sleeping, he awoke at about midnight to find the palace guard had left. Dispatching messages to his friends' palace chambers for them to come, he received no answers. Upon going to their chambers personally, he found them all abandoned. When he called for a gladiator or anyone else adept with a sword to kill him, no one appeared. He cried, "Have I neither friend nor foe?" and ran out as if to throw himself into the Tiber. [75]

Returning, Nero sought a place where he could hide and collect his thoughts. An imperial freedman, Phaon, offered his villa, located 4 mi (6.4 km) outside the city. Travelling in disguise, Nero and four loyal freedmen, Epaphroditos, Phaon, Neophytus, and Sporus, reached the villa, where Nero ordered them to dig a grave for him.

At this time, a courier arrived with a report that the Senate had declared Nero a public enemy, that it was their intention to execute him by beating him to death, and that armed men had been sent to apprehend him for the act to take place in the Roman Forum. The Senate actually was still reluctant and deliberating on the right course of action, as Nero was the last member of the Julio-Claudian family. Indeed, most of the senators had served the imperial family all their lives and felt a sense of loyalty to the deified bloodline, if not to Nero himself. The men actually had the goal of returning Nero back to the Senate, where the Senate hoped to work out a compromise with the rebelling governors that would preserve Nero's life, so that at least a future heir to the dynasty could be produced. [76]

Nero, however, did not know this, and at the news brought by the courier, he prepared himself for suicide, pacing up and down muttering Qualis artifex pereo ("What an artist dies in me"). [77] Losing his nerve, he begged one of his companions to set an example by killing himself first. At last, the sound of approaching horsemen drove Nero to face the end. However, he still could not bring himself to take his own life, but instead forced his private secretary, Epaphroditos, to perform the task. [78]

When one of the horsemen entered and saw that Nero was dying, he attempted to stop the bleeding, but efforts to save Nero's life were unsuccessful. Nero's final words were "Too late! This is fidelity!" [79] He died on 9 June 68, [80] the anniversary of the death of his first wife Claudia Octavia, and was buried in the Mausoleum of the Domitii Ahenobarbi, in what is now the Villa Borghese (Pincian Hill) area of Rome. [79] According to Sulpicius Severus, it is unclear whether Nero took his own life. [81]

With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty ended. [82] : 19 When news of his death reached Rome, the Senate posthumously declared Nero a public enemy to appease the coming Galba (as the Senate had initially declared Galba as a public enemy) and proclaimed Galba as the new emperor. Chaos would ensue in the year of the Four Emperors. [83]

After Nero

According to Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the people of Rome celebrated the death of Nero. [84] [85] Tacitus, though, describes a more complicated political environment. Tacitus mentions that Nero's death was welcomed by Senators, nobility and the upper class. [86] The lower-class, slaves, frequenters of the arena and the theater, and "those who were supported by the famous excesses of Nero", on the other hand, were upset with the news. [86] Members of the military were said to have mixed feelings, as they had allegiance to Nero, but had been bribed to overthrow him. [87]

Eastern sources, namely Philostratus and Apollonius of Tyana, mention that Nero's death was mourned as he "restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character" [88] and that he "held our liberties in his hand and respected them". [89]

Modern scholarship generally holds that, while the Senate and more well-off individuals welcomed Nero's death, the general populace was "loyal to the end and beyond, for Otho and Vitellius both thought it worthwhile to appeal to their nostalgia". [23] : 186 [90]

Nero's name was erased from some monuments, in what Edward Champlin regards as an "outburst of private zeal". [91] Many portraits of Nero were reworked to represent other figures according to Eric R. Varner, over fifty such images survive. [92] This reworking of images is often explained as part of the way in which the memory of disgraced emperors was condemned posthumously [93] (see damnatio memoriae). [92] Champlin, however, doubts that the practice is necessarily negative and notes that some continued to create images of Nero long after his death. [94] Damaged portraits of Nero, often with hammer-blows directed to the face, have been found in many provinces of the Roman Empire, three recently having been identified from the United Kingdom [95] (see damnatio memoriae). [92]

The civil war during the year of the Four Emperors was described by ancient historians as a troubling period. [83] According to Tacitus, this instability was rooted in the fact that emperors could no longer rely on the perceived legitimacy of the imperial bloodline, as Nero and those before him could. [86] Galba began his short reign with the execution of many of Nero's allies. [96] One such notable enemy included Nymphidius Sabinus, who claimed to be the son of Emperor Caligula. [97]

Otho overthrew Galba. Otho was said to be liked by many soldiers because he had been a friend of Nero and resembled him somewhat in temperament. [98] It was said that the common Roman hailed Otho as Nero himself. [99] Otho used "Nero" as a surname and reerected many statues to Nero. [99] Vitellius overthrew Otho. Vitellius began his reign with a large funeral for Nero complete with songs written by Nero. [100]

After Nero's death in 68, there was a widespread belief, especially in the eastern provinces, that he was not dead and somehow would return. [101] This belief came to be known as the Nero Redivivus Legend. The legend of Nero's return lasted for hundreds of years after Nero's death. Augustine of Hippo wrote of the legend as a popular belief in 422. [102]

At least three Nero impostors emerged leading rebellions. The first, who sang and played the cithara or lyre and whose face was similar to that of the dead emperor, appeared in 69 during the reign of Vitellius. [103] After persuading some to recognize him, he was captured and executed. [103] Sometime during the reign of Titus (79–81), another impostor appeared in Asia and sang to the accompaniment of the lyre and looked like Nero but he, too, was killed. [104] Twenty years after Nero's death, during the reign of Domitian, there was a third pretender. He was supported by the Parthians, who only reluctantly gave him up, [105] and the matter almost came to war. [83]

Boudica's uprising

In Britannia (Britain) in 59 AD, Prasutagus, leader of the Iceni tribe and a client king of Rome during Claudius' reign, had died. The client state arrangement was unlikely to survive following the death of Claudius. The will of the Iceni tribal King (leaving control of the Iceni to his daughters) was denied. When the roman procurator Catus Decianus scourged the former King Prasutagus' wife Boudica and raped her daughters, the Iceni revolted. They were joined by the Celtic Trinovantes tribe and their uprising became the most significant provincial rebellion of the 1st century AD. [14] : 32 [28] : 254 Under Queen Boudica, the towns of Camulodunum (Colchester), Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St. Albans) were burned, and a substantial body of Roman legion infantry were eliminated. The governor of the province, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, assembled his remaining forces and defeated the Britons. Although order was restored for some time, Nero considered abandoning the province. [106] Julius Classicianus replaced the former procurator, Catus Decianus, and Classicianus advised Nero to replace Paulinus who continued to punish the population even after the rebellion was over. [28] : 265 Nero decided to adopt a more lenient approach by appointing a new governor, Petronius Turpilianus. [14] : 33

Peace with Parthia

Nero began preparing for war in the early years of his reign, after the Parthian king Vologeses set his brother Tiridates on the Armenian throne. Around 57 AD and 58 AD Domitius Corbulo and his legions advanced on Tiridates and captured the Armenian capital Artaxata. Tigranes was chosen to replace Tiridates on the Armenian throne. When Tigranes attacked Adiabene, Nero had to send further legions to defend Armenia and Syria from Parthia.

The Roman victory came at a time when the Parthians were troubled by revolts when this was dealt with they were able to devote resources to the Armenian situation. A Roman army under Paetus surrendered under humiliating circumstances and though both Roman and Parthian forces withdrew from Armenia, it was under Parthian control. The triumphal arch for Corbulo's earlier victory was part-built when Parthian envoys arrived in 63 AD to discuss treaties. Given imperium over the eastern regions, Corbulo organised his forces for an invasion but was met by this Parthian delegation. An agreement was thereafter reached with the Parthians: Rome would recognize Tiridates as king of Armenia, only if he agreed to receive his diadem from Nero. A coronation ceremony was held in Italy 66 AD. Dio reports that Tiridates said "I have come to you, my God, worshiping you as Mithras." Shotter says this parallels other divine designations that were commonly applied to Nero in the East including "The New Apollo" and "The New Sun". After the coronation, friendly relations were established between Rome and the eastern kingdoms of Parthia and Armenia. Artaxata was temporarily renamed Neroneia. [28] : 265–66 [14] : 35

First Jewish War

In 66, there was a Jewish revolt in Judea stemming from Greek and Jewish religious tension. [107] In 67, Nero dispatched Vespasian to restore order. [108] This revolt was eventually put down in 70, after Nero's death. [109] This revolt is famous for Romans breaching the walls of Jerusalem and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem. [110]

Nero studied poetry, music, painting and sculpture. He both sang and played the cithara (a type of lyre). Many of these disciplines were standard education for the Roman elite, but Nero's devotion to music exceeded what was socially acceptable for a Roman of his class. [23] : 41–42 Ancient sources were critical of Nero's emphasis on the arts, chariot-racing and athletics. Pliny described Nero as an "actor-emperor" (scaenici imperatoris) and Suetonius wrote that he was "carried away by a craze for popularity. since he was acclaimed as the equal of Apollo in music and of the Sun in driving a chariot, he had planned to emulate the exploits of Hercules as well." [45] : 53

In 67 AD Nero participated in the Olympics. He had bribed organizers to postpone the games for a year so he could participate, [111] and artistic competitions were added to the athletic events. Nero won every contest in which he was a competitor. During the games Nero sang and played his lyre on stage, acted in tragedies and raced chariots. He won a 10-horse chariot race, despite being thrown from the chariot and leaving the race. He was crowned on the basis that he would have won if he had completed the race. After he died a year later, his name was removed from the list of winners. [112] Champlin writes that though Nero's participation "effectively stifled true competition, [Nero] seems to have been oblivious of reality." [45] : 54–55

Nero established the Neronian games in 60 AD. Modeled on Greek style games, these games included "music" "gymnastic" and "questrian" contents. According to Suetonius the gymnastic contests were held in the Saepta area of the Campus Martius. [45] : 288

The history of Nero's reign is problematic in that no historical sources survived that were contemporary with Nero. These first histories, while they still existed, were described as biased and fantastical, either overly critical or praising of Nero. [113] The original sources were also said to contradict on a number of events. [114] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Nero written by the next generations of historians. [115] A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus, Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder all wrote condemning histories on Nero that are now lost. [116] There were also pro-Nero histories, but it is unknown who wrote them or for what deeds Nero was praised. [117]

The bulk of what is known of Nero comes from Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio, who were all of the upper classes. Tacitus and Suetonius wrote their histories on Nero over fifty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 150 years after Nero's death. These sources contradict one another on a number of events in Nero's life including the death of Claudius, the death of Agrippina, and the Roman fire of 64, but they are consistent in their condemnation of Nero.

A handful of other sources also add a limited and varying perspective on Nero. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favourable light. Some sources, though, portray him as a competent emperor who was popular with the Roman people, especially in the east. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Cassius Dio (c. 155–229) was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator. He passed the greater part of his life in public service. He was a senator under Commodus and governor of Smyrna after the death of Septimius Severus and afterwards suffect consul around 205, and also proconsul in Africa and Pannonia. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Books 61–63 of Dio's Romas vēsture describe the reign of Nero. Only fragments of these books remain and what does remain was abridged and altered by John Xiphilinus, an 11th-century monk. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Dio Chrysostom (c. 40–120), a Greek philosopher and historian, wrote the Roman people were very happy with Nero and would have allowed him to rule indefinitely. They longed for his rule once he was gone and embraced imposters when they appeared:

Indeed the truth about this has not come out even yet for so far as the rest of his subjects were concerned, there was nothing to prevent his continuing to be Emperor for all time, seeing that even now everybody wishes he were still alive. And the great majority do believe that he still is, although in a certain sense he has died not once but often along with those who had been firmly convinced that he was still alive. [118]

Epictetus (c. 55–135) was the slave to Nero's scribe Epaphroditos. [119] He makes a few passing negative comments on Nero's character in his work, but makes no remarks on the nature of his rule. He describes Nero as a spoiled, angry and unhappy man. [120]

The historian Josephus (c. 37–100), while calling Nero a tyrant, was also the first to mention bias against Nero. Of other historians, he said:

But I omit any further discourse about these affairs for there have been a great many who have composed the history of Nero some of which have departed from the truth of facts out of favour, as having received benefits from him while others, out of hatred to him, and the great ill-will which they bore him, have so impudently raved against him with their lies, that they justly deserve to be condemned. Nor do I wonder at such as have told lies of Nero, since they have not in their writings preserved the truth of history as to those facts that were earlier than his time, even when the actors could have no way incurred their hatred, since those writers lived a long time after them. [121]

Although more of a poet than historian, Lucanus (c. 39–65) has one of the kindest accounts of Nero's rule. He writes of peace and prosperity under Nero in contrast to previous war and strife. Ironically, he was later involved in a conspiracy to overthrow Nero and was executed. [122]

Philostratus II "the Athenian" (c. 172–250) spoke of Nero in the Life of Apollonius Tyana (Books 4–5). Although he has a generally bad or dim view of Nero, he speaks of others' positive reception of Nero in the East. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

The history of Nero by Pliny the Elder (c. 24–79) did not survive. Still, there are several references to Nero in Pliny's Natural Histories. Pliny has one of the worst opinions of Nero and calls him an "enemy of mankind". [123]

Plutarch (c. 46–127) mentions Nero indirectly in his account of the Life of Galba and the Life of Otho, as well as in the Vision of Thespesius in Book 7 of the Moralia, where a voice orders that Nero's soul be transferred to a more offensive species. [124] Nero is portrayed as a tyrant, but those that replace him are not described as better.

It is not surprising that Seneca (c. 4 BC–65 AD), Nero's teacher and advisor, writes very well of Nero. [125]

Suetonius (c. 69–130) was a member of the equestrian order, and he was the head of the department of the imperial correspondence. While in this position, Suetonius started writing biographies of the emperors, accentuating the anecdotal and sensational aspects. By this account, Nero raped the vestal virgin Rubria. [126]

The Annals by Tacitus (c. 56–117) is the most detailed and comprehensive history on the rule of Nero, despite being incomplete after the year 66 AD. Tacitus described the rule of the Julio-Claudian emperors as generally unjust. He also thought that existing writing on them was unbalanced:

The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred. [127]

Tacitus was the son of a procurator, who married into the elite family of Agricola. He entered his political life as a senator after Nero's death and, by Tacitus' own admission, owed much to Nero's rivals. Realising that this bias may be apparent to others, Tacitus protests that his writing is true. [128]

In 1562 Girolamo Cardano published in Basel his Encomium Neronis, which was one of the first historical references of the Modern era to portray Nero in a positive light. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Jewish tradition

At the end of 66 AD, conflict broke out between Greeks and Jews in Jerusalem and Caesarea. According to the Talmud, Nero went to Jerusalem and shot arrows in all four directions. All the arrows landed in the city. He then asked a passing child to repeat the verse he had learned that day. The child responded, "I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel" (Ezekiel 25:14). [129] Nero became terrified, believing that God wanted the Second Temple to be destroyed, but that he would punish the one to carry it out. Nero said, "He desires to lay waste His House and to lay the blame on me," whereupon he fled and converted to Judaism to avoid such retribution. [130] Vespasian was then dispatched to put down the rebellion.

The Talmud adds that the sage Reb Meir Baal HaNess lived in the time of the Mishnah, and was a prominent supporter of the Bar Kokhba rebellion against Roman rule. Rabbi Meir was considered one of the greatest of the Tannaim of the third generation (139–163). According to the Talmud, his father was a descendant of Nero who had converted to Judaism. His wife Bruriah is one of the few women cited in the Gemara. He is the third-most-frequently-mentioned sage in the Mishnah. [131]

Roman and Greek sources nowhere report Nero's alleged trip to Jerusalem or his alleged conversion to Judaism. [132] There is also no record of Nero having any offspring who survived infancy: his only recorded child, Claudia Augusta, died aged 4 months.

Christian tradition

Non-Christian historian Tacitus describes Nero extensively torturing and executing Christians after the fire of 64. [4] Suetonius also mentions Nero punishing Christians, though he does so because they are "given to a new and mischievous superstition" and does not connect it with the fire. [133]

Christian writer Tertullian (c. 155–230) was the first to call Nero the first persecutor of Christians. He wrote, "Examine your records. There you will find that Nero was the first that persecuted this doctrine." [134] Lactantius (c. 240–320) also said that Nero "first persecuted the servants of God". [135] as does Sulpicius Severus. [136] However, Suetonius writes that, "since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, the [emperor Claudius] expelled them from Rome" ("Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantis Roma expulit"). [137] These expelled "Jews" may have been early Christians, although Suetonius is not explicit. Nor is the Bible explicit, calling Aquila of Pontus and his wife, Priscilla, both expelled from Italy at the time, "Jews" (Acts 18:2). [138]

Martyrdoms of Peter and Paul

The first text to suggest that Nero ordered the execution of an apostle is a letter by Clement to the Corinthians traditionally dated to around AD 96. [139] The apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah, a Christian writing from the 2nd century, says, "the slayer of his mother, who himself (even) this king, will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve one will be delivered into his hands" this is interpreted as referring to Nero. [140]

Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275–339) was the first to write explicitly that Paul was beheaded and Peter crucified in Rome during the reign of Nero. [141] He states that Nero's persecution led to Peter and Paul's deaths, but that Nero did not give any specific orders. However, several other accounts going back to the 1st century have Paul surviving his two years in Rome and travelling to Hispania, before facing trial in Rome again prior to his death. [142]

Peter is first said to have been crucified specifically upside-down in Rome during Nero's reign (but not by Nero) in the apocryphal Acts of Peter (c. 200). [143] The account ends with Paul still alive and Nero abiding by God's command not to persecute any more Christians.

By the 4th century, a number of writers were stating that Nero killed Peter and Paul. [144]

Antichrist

The Sibylline Oracles, Book 5 and 8, written in the 2nd century, speak of Nero returning and bringing destruction. [145] [146] Within Christian communities, these writings, along with others, [147] fueled the belief that Nero would return as the Antichrist. In 310, Lactantius wrote that Nero "suddenly disappeared, and even the burial place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen. This has led some persons of extravagant imagination to suppose that, having been conveyed to a distant region, he is still reserved alive and to him they apply the Sibylline verses." Lactantius maintains that it is not right to believe this. [135] [148]

In 422, Augustine of Hippo wrote about 2 Thessalonians 2:1–11, where he believed that Paul mentioned the coming of the Antichrist. Although he rejects the theory, Augustine mentions that many Christians believed Nero was the Antichrist or would return as the Antichrist. He wrote that, "in saying, 'For the mystery of iniquity doth already work,' [149] he alluded to Nero, whose deeds already seemed to be as the deeds of Antichrist." [102]

Some modern biblical scholars [150] [151] such as Delbert Hillers (Johns Hopkins University) of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the editors of the Oxford Study Bible un Harper Collins Study Bible, contend that the number 666 in the Book of Revelation is a code for Nero, [152] a view that is also supported in Roman Catholic Biblical commentaries. [153] [154] The statement concerns Revelation 17:1–18, "the longest explanatory passage in Revelation", which predicts the destruction of Rome by work of an eight emperor who was also one of the seven kings of the most extended and powerful empire ever known in the human history: according to this lecture, Babylon the Great is identified with Rome [155] which has poured the blood of saints and martyrs (verse 6) and subsequently become the seat of the Vatican State, reigning over all the kings existing on Earth.


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What is "locusta"

Locusta Lo*cus"ta, n. [NL.: cf. locuste.] (Bot.) The spikelet or flower cluster of grasses.
--Gray.

Related phrases:
Wiktionary

n. (context botany English) The spikelet or flower cluster of grasses.

Wikipedia

Locusta (or Lucusta) was a notorious poison mixer in Ancient Rome. She, along with Canidia and Martina, made up the infamous trio of female poisoners in Roman times.

She was born in the ancient province of Gaul. Her early history remains mostly a mystery. According to ancient historians, in AD 54 Locusta was hired by Agrippina the Younger to supply a poisoned dish of mushrooms for the murder of Emperor Claudius. Once the drug was made, the task of administering it was given to Claudius's food-taster Halotus. In 55, she was convicted of poisoning another victim, but Nero rescued her from execution and in return called upon her to supply poison to murder Britannicus.

Her first attempt at poisoning Britannicus proved futile, as the concoction was too weak to kill him. Angry and impatient at Locusta's failure, Nero beat her with his own hands and told her to make a more deadly poison to finish the task. When she succeeded Nero rewarded her with a vast estate and even sent pupils to her. When Nero fled Rome, he acquired poison from Locusta for his own use, but ultimately died by other means. After Nero's suicide, Locusta was condemned to die by the emperor Galba during his brief reign, which ended 15 January AD 69. Along with many other of Nero's "favorites" such as Helius, Patrobius, and Narcissus, she was led in chains through the city, and finally executed.

Locusta's career is described by the ancient historians Tacitus (Annals 12.66 and 13.15), Suetonius ([http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Nero*.html Life of Nero], 33 and 47), and Cassius Dio (61.34 and 63.3). Juvenal also mentions Locusta in Book 1, line 71 of his Satīri.

In Grāfs Montekristo by Alexandre Dumas the poisoner Madame de Villefort is frequently compared to Locusta. Chapter 101 is entitled 'Locusta'.

Usage examples of "locusta".

Serenus too occupied a box, and further down, beneath a parasol, the red-haired Locusta sat.

Through the storm of flower petals, gambling tokens, fruit peels and other objects being rained down in praise upon us, I thought I saw Locusta nod and smile in return.

For help with that selection I turned to Locusta, whom I saw almost nightly.

Kas Locusta had done was no worse than what countless married Roman women did every night, from lust rather than worthy ambition.

Since there was nothing shameful in open lovemaking, Locusta and I were indulging in a bit of it when there was a sudden fearful crash of pottery and metal.

He was staring at me intently, but I knew now that he had been looking at Locusta a moment ago, and was speaking to her as well as me.

Only last night Locusta had boasted too openly of her power and her secrets.

Looking about in the antechamber, I failed to see Locusta until she stormed at me from the shadow of a pillar, spitting all sorts of obscene oaths.

Ar Locusta in her present frame of mind it might well be unbearable.

I said nothing, By mutual consent Locusta and I had not concealed our reason for going to Africa.

When I returned to my quarters, I reluctantly went to inform Locusta that we would leave in four days.

Before he conducted me inside the tower, he paused, turned and saluted Locusta vēlreiz.

With four spears piercing her body, Locusta fell into the dark, her hair a red banner of her destruction.

At the moment, Locusta was under house arrest in her dwelling near the Palatine, guarded by a tribune who was directly responsible to the empress.

Kad Locusta said the potion was ready, Nero hurried out to fetch a kid that he had tethered inside his bedroom and led the animal in.


The infamous Chicago Tylenol murders

The series of tragic deaths known as the Chicago Tylenol murders started on September 29, 1982, when a 12-year-old girl complained of cold symptoms, was given a single Tylenol capsule, and died soon after. The next victim was a 27-year-old postal worker, who died from what was originally called a heart attack. In the wake of his death, both his brother and sister-in-law took Tylenol from a bottle in his home to calm their headaches — and yeah, they also died. In total, seven people passed away from taking Tylenol that had been laced with cyanide. Around 31 million bottles of Tylenol were recalled, more poisoned bottles were found, and several more copycat incidents popped up over the next decade.

According to PBS, the poisoner or poisoners were never found. But the incident did have a long-lasting impact on the pharmaceutical world. Tylenol manufacturers Johnson & Johnson worked with the FDA to create new packaging that made it very, very obvious if anyone opened or punctured seals on bottles. They also redesigned the pills themselves, into a form that couldn't be opened, tampered with, and reassembled. After investing more than $100 million into the redesign, medicine was made much safer — and much more annoying to open for even the most legitimate reasons.



Komentāri:

  1. Faumuro

    Paldies par skaidrojumu, es arī uzskatu, ka jo vieglāk, jo labāk...

  2. Juanito

    Paldies Tev par atbalstu. ES būtu.

  3. Fekus

    Jums nav taisnība. Es varu to pierādīt. Raksti man PM, sarunāsim.

  4. Kazrajinn

    What interesting question

  5. Najar

    Es speciāli reģistrējos forumā, lai piedalītos šī jautājuma apspriešanā.

  6. Bartolome

    Curiously, but it is not clear



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