Ko ēda mongoļu karavīrs?

Ko ēda mongoļu karavīrs?

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Šajā īsajā YouTube videoklipā īsi apskatīts Mongoļu impērijas ēdiens un dzēriens.


Mongoļu karavīru ieroči

Mongoļu karavīri bija ļoti nelielas ieroču izvēles meistari, un viņi īpaši koncentrējās uz to, lai kļūtu par izcili lietpratīgiem, galvenokārt ar diviem galvenajiem ieročiem, vienu no ieročiem un vienu tuvu ceturtdaļas ieroci.

Darbības rādiusā izvēlētais ierocis bija sinonīms mongoļu karavīriem, saliktajam priekšgalam un bultai. Ar šo ieroci mongoļi spēja noturēt uzbrukumu no attāluma, novākt ienaidniekus no vidus līdz tuvam attālumam un visu laiku, braucot ar druknajiem mongoļu zirgiem, kas viņiem deva ātrumu un manevrētspēju, izšaujot bultas.

Tuvu mongoļu karavīrs izvilka ieroci, kuru viņi padarīja slavenu, izliekto zobenu. Ar šo vienas rokas zobenu mongoļi varēja sagriezt šķēles zirga mugurā vai kājām. Izliektais asmens padarīja griešanas darbus daudz vieglāku un bija daudz efektīvāks un ātrāks nekā tradicionālā vilces darbība.

Protams, mongoļu karavīri neaprobežojās tikai ar šiem diviem ieročiem, taču tie bija viņu izvēle. Mēs apskatīsim šos un daudz ko citu, izpētot visas mongoļu bruņojuma iespējas.


Atkāpšanās spēks

Vēsturnieks Tomass Kreglvels skaidro, ka spēja savīties savos seglos nozīmēja, ka pat tad, kad mongoļi brauca prom, viņi varēja šaut bultas pret ienaidnieka armiju. Kad armija turpināja uzlādēties un atkāpties, viņu modeļi kļuva arvien haotiskāki. Marko Polo, kurš redzēja mongoļus darbībā, aprakstīja viņu tehniku: "Viņi nekad neļāva sev iekļūt regulārā tuvcīņā, bet nepārtraukti brauc un šauj ienaidniekā."

Ja tradicionālie karavīri bija līdzīgi tankiem, mongoļu karavīri bija iznīcinātāju piloti. Viņu meistarība kustībā padarīja viņus nepārspējamus. Otra armija virzīsies pretinieku maiņai, apvienošanai, izkliedēšanai un atkal apvienošanai.

Kad viss cits neizdevās, mongoļi izmantoja psiholoģiju. Pēc signāla kavalērija varēja apbraukt apkārtni un pārliecinoši sajaukt viltus atkāpšanos. Neuzmanīgie opozīcijas spēki bieži metās pēc viņiem, uzskatot, ka cīņa negaidīti ir aizgājusi. Pēc tam mongoļu kavalērija pagriezīsies pa labi atpakaļ, pārāk tuvu pievilinājusi dažas pārāk pašpārliecinātas dvēseles. Tomēr biežāk viņi turpināja atkāpšanos un pēc tam manevrēja prom no ceļa. Pēc tam nenolaistie strēlnieki apšaudīja vajājošo armiju ar bultām, un smagāk bruņota kavalērija varēja uzņemties ar lancēm. Tajā brīdī cīņa bija tikpat laba kā beigusies.

Satriecošā Mongolijas impērijas nākšana pie varas atklāj, kā viena tehnoloģiskā attīstība bija burtisks atspēriena punkts jaunam karadarbības stilam - tādam, kuram nevarēja pretoties neviena esošā armija. Lielākā sauszemes impērija, kādu pasaule jebkad ir zinājusi, nepastāvēja viena faktora dēļ. Tūkstoš dažādi apstākļi palīdzēja Čingishanam un viņa tuvākajiem pēcnācējiem iekarot lielāko daļu kontinenta. Bet kāpostiem bija neaizstājama loma. Izstrādājot perfektu kātiņu, vēsturei neatņemama vieta deva armiju un cilvēkus.


Mongoļu orda pret samuraju karotājiem

Slavenie mongoļu ordeņi, iespējams, bija visspēcīgākais spēks uz Zemes līdz XIII gadsimta vidum ar milzīgu impēriju, kas stiepās no Donavas līdz Japānas jūrai un no Ziemeļsibīrijas līdz Kambodžai.

Tas aptvēra aptuveni 33 miljonus kvadrātkilometru zemes, kas atbilst 22% no Zemes kopējās zemes platības, un to ietekmēja vairāk nekā 100 miljonu iedzīvotāju.

Turpretī Kamakura Japāna bija neliela sala, kuru iekšējais konflikts šķīra ar konkurējošiem karavadoņiem, kuri savā starpā cīnījās par zemi, privilēģijām un resursiem.

Tūlītēja mongoļu ordu iebrukums

1268. gadā mongoļu līderis Kublains Kāns (tautas dibinātāja Čingisa mazdēls) nosūtīja savus sūtņus uz Japānu, lai pieprasītu atzīt mongoļu valdīšanu. Japāņi to noliedza, taču tūlītēja reakcija uz šo izaicinājumu bija neliela, jo Kāns iesaistījās konfliktā Ķīnā, kurā līdz 1273. gadam viņš nostiprinājās.

Gadu vēlāk viņš atkal pievērsās Japānai un nosūtīja armiju, kurā bija mongoļi, ķīnieši un korejieši, lai iekarotu nekaunīgos samuraju karavīrus. Mongoļi bija daudz spēcīgāka armija nekā viņu ienaidnieki vairākos veidos, ieskaitot cilvēka spēku, organizatoriskās prasmes un taktisko izpratni, ko 18 gadus vecais Šikens (reģents) Tokimune Hojo atzina.

Pat šajā jaunībā viņš bija izcils karavīrs, un viņš saprata, cik lielas briesmas valstij draud, lai izbeigtu strīdus starp konkurējošiem samuraju klaniem, cenšoties panākt to apvienošanos pret kopīgu ienaidnieku.

Pirmā mongoļu iebrukums

Pirmais iebrukums notika 1274. gada 19. novembrī, kad mongoļu ordeņi piezemējās Hakatas līcī, un viņus sagaidīja japāņu karavīri no Kjušu reģiona. Trīspadsmitajā gadsimtā samuraju iecienītākais kaujas stils bija uzsākt cīņu un izaicināt pretinieku karotājus individuālai cīņai piķa cīņu laikā. Tomēr viņu ārvalstu ienaidnieki izmantoja cita veida stratēģiju.

Pirms atkāpšanās viņi brauca uz samuraju pusi, izšaujot ar indēm savītas bultu zalves. Šie uzbrukumu viļņi nepārtraukti turpinājās un tika apvienoti ar uguns bumbu izmantošanu, kas, iespējams, tika izstrādātas Ķīnā un sadedzināja ne tikai samuraju karavīrus, bet arī viņu stiprinājumus. Japāņi bija spiesti atgriezties aizsardzības veidojumā, bet bongu trūkuma dēļ mongoļi nevarēja izmantot savu priekšrocību un doties tālāk.

Viņi atkal iekāpa savos kuģos un pameta Hakatas līci ar izšķirošu uzvaru zem jostām, taču, to darot, nāca vētra, kas iznīcināja lielu daļu viņu flotes ar spēcīgu vēju, lietusgāzēm un milzīgiem viļņiem. Viņi zaudēja aptuveni 13 000 vīru no spēkiem, kuru kaujas sākumā bija aptuveni 35 000 cilvēku, un 200 no viņu 900 kuģiem tika zaudēti jūrai.

Otrais uzbrukums samuraju spēkiem

Dažus nākamos gadus Kublai koncentrējās uz Ķīnas ziemeļu daļas iekarošanu, līdz 1279. gadā viņš nosūtīja vairāk sūtņu uz Japānu, pieprasot, lai tur esošie līderi godina viņu. Atbilde bija kategorisks “nē”, un sūtņa galvas tika atdotas Hānam, atskaitot viņu ķermeņus. Kublai bija nikns, bet gaidīja līdz 1281. gada maijam, lai mēģinātu attaisnot savu atriebību.

Viņš izveidoja vairāk nekā 200 000 vīru armiju un, gatavojoties gaidāmajam konfliktam, japāņi uzcēla 4,5 metrus augstu un 40 kilometrus garu sienu gar Hakatas līča krastu. Viņi arī samontēja lielu skaitu mazu laivu, kas bija īpaši paredzētas cīņai seklā ūdenī, lai apgrūtinātu pretinieka spēju izkraut karaspēku.

Flotei vajadzēja uzbrukt divos viļņos, no kuriem pirmais devās ar 900 kuģiem, kuros atradās 40 000 vīru, kam sekoja vēl 100 000 karavīru un 60 000 jūrnieku, kuri tiks pārvadāti 3500 kuģos. Pirmais vilnis sasniedza Cushima 9. jūnijā, un, neskatoties uz spēcīgo pretestību, tur izdevās pārvarēt samuraju spēkus.

Viņi devās uz Kyushu Hakata līcī, kur samurajiem izdevās ierobežot spēju izkraut karaspēku līdz nelielam skaitam un nakts uzbrukumus saviem kuģiem.

Dievišķais vējš

Šī taktika sarūgtināja mongoļus, kuri atgriezās savos kuģos, lai drīz pēc tam saprastu, ka viņi atkal ir pieļāvuši to pašu kļūdu, iebrūkot Japānā taifūna sezonas laikā. Vēl viena vētra skāra vēl lielāku nežēlību nekā iepriekšējā un izpostīja gan flotes pirmo, gan otro viļņu. Šie vēji, tāpēc japāņi uzskatīja, bija pierādījumi par dievu iejaukšanos un kļuva pazīstami kā Kamikaze vai Dievišķais vējš.

Aptuveni 4000 viņu kuģu tika nogremdēti un aptuveni 100 000 vīriešu zaudēja dzīvību, liekot flotei atgriezties Ķīnā. Atkal dabas spēki bija uzvarējuši mongoļu ordu, kas izbeidza visus lielos mēģinājumus kļūt par samuraju karavīru valdniekiem.

Tālāka lasīšana

Kuka, H. 1993. Samurajs - karavīru tradīcijas stāsts. Londona. Blandford Press.

Greisija, C. [Internets]. 2012. gads. Kublai Khan: Ķīnas mīļākais barbārs. BBC. Pieejams: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19850234 [Skatīts 2013. gada 10. maijā].

Mongoļu impērija (no 1206. līdz 1368. gadam). [Internets]. 2013. Atrodiet datus. Pieejams: http://empires.findthedata.org/l/2/Mongol-Empire [Skatīts 2013. gada 10. maijā].

Ņūmens, J. 1989. Bušido - karavīra ceļš. Ņujorka. Galerijas grāmatas.

Renius, A. [Internets]. 2009. Mongoļi, samuraji un dievišķais vējš. Socyberty. Pieejams: http://socyberty.com/history/the-mongols-the-samurai-and-the-divine-wind [Skatīts 2013. gada 10. maijā].

Turnbull, S. R. 1987. Ceturtais izdevums. Samurajs - militārā vēsture. Londona. Osprey.


Pienotava

Neraugoties uz milzīgajiem ganāmpulkiem, nomadu mongoļiem tas izdevās, viņi reti ēda savus dzīvniekus un viena ļoti vienkārša iemesla dēļ - dienasgrāmatu. Viņi ganīja kazas, aitas, kamieļus, jakus, vēršus un, protams, zirgus. Jebkurš no šiem dzīvniekiem nodrošinās jūs ar lielu piena daudzumu, un tāpēc mongoļi ļoti rūpējās par saviem dzīvniekiem, parasti ēdot tos tikai īpašos gadījumos vai ja viņi dabiski nomira.

Sviests bija galvenais mongoļu ēdiens, lai gan tas bieži tika vārīts ādas maisiņā, nevis sālīts, lai uzlabotu tā glabāšanas laiku. Jogurts tiktu gatavots arī no piena, tāpat kā kaltēts piena biezpiens, ko mongoļi sauc par “quruts”. Sieru varēja pagatavot arī dabiski žāvējot vējā un saulē.

Dairy deva mongoļiem būtisku, vienkāršu pārtikas avotu, kas bija gan pārnēsājams, gan ilgstošs viņu garajām militārajām kampaņām.


Mongoļu karavīri un saliktais loks

Čingishans sāka mongoļu iebrukumus, taču tieši spēcīgais saliktais priekšgals iznesa viņu civilizāciju no stepēm.

Eirāzijas stepju mongoļu ciltis trīspadsmitajā gadsimtā ar pārsteidzošu pēkšņumu eksplodēja no mazpazīstamas pasaules daļas. Lai gan ir neapstrīdams, ka Čingishans ar personības spēku nostiprināja dažādus stepju dzīvsudraba klanus, viņš spēja izmantot arī mongoļu cilšu esošās militārās spējas. Galvenais no šīm spējām bija saliktais priekšgala priekšgals.

Mongoļu biedrības skarbums

Mongoļu ciltis dzima sabiedrībā, kuras valodā nebija atsevišķu vārdu “karavīrs” un “cilvēks”. Abi vārdi bija sinonīmi. Viņa pasaule bija viena no pastāvīgajiem cilšu konfliktiem un ar to saistītajām nesaskaņām. Mongoļu tēviņš bija lieliski pielāgojies dabiskam reidu ciklam pret citām ciltīm un nepieciešamajiem mēģinājumiem aizstāvēt savu cilts īpašumu no citiem. Viņiem nebija nekādas pastāvīgas dzīvesvietas, lai viņus nesaistītu ar nevienu reljefa gabalu plašajā ziemeļu stepē. Viņu partija bija pastāvīga klejošana.

Reidi un nepieciešamība aizstāvēt savu īpašumu prasīja, lai viņi apgūtu vienu ieroci, kas bija visefektīvākais bezkokainā un plašā zemē: salikto loku. Šie stepju dzīves elementi padarīja jātniekus par dabiskiem un izveicīgiem plēsējiem, un gandrīz visi tēviņi kļuva par karavīriem nevis pēc profesijas, bet vienkārši tāpēc, ka piedzima par tēviņu un mongoļiem.

Kompozīta priekšgala konstrukcija

Izdevumā Steppe Warriors Ēriks Hildingers sniedz informāciju par to, kā tika izgatavoti šie saliktie loki. Katra saliktā priekšgala uzbūvei bija nepieciešami vidēji četri mēneši. Tas bija tāpēc, ka priekšgala konstrukcijai bija nepieciešami trīs vai četri dažādi materiāli, kas ietvēra dažus koka veidus, raga gabalus un cīpslas, kas izgatavotas kopā. Šis process radīja īsāku loku, kas spēj radīt tādu pašu vilkšanas svaru kā lielākiem lokiem, bet vairāk enerģijas tiek pārnests uz bultiņu, nevis tiek tērēts priekšgala virves vilkšanā un atlaišanā kā vienkāršos lokos.

Daži vēsturnieki apgalvo, ka šiem lokiem bija jāvelk simts sešdesmit mārciņas, bet Hildingere ir pārliecināta, ka smagums, kas pārsniedz septiņdesmit mārciņas, būtu padarījis tos pārāk smagus zirga mugurā. Dažādi laikmeta hronisti atzīmē, ka vidējiem mongoļu jātniekiem bija divi vai trīs no šiem lokiem, un bija arī dažāda veida bultas, kas izstrādātas dažādiem mērķiem, nedaudz līdzinās mūsdienās izmantotajai speciālā mērķa munīcijai.

Loka īpašības uzlaboja stepju poniji

Ņemot vērā, ka šie loki bija kvalificētu strēlnieku rokās, kas uzstādīti uz izturīgajiem ponijiem, kas audzēti skarbajai dzīvei stepē, ir viegli saprast, kā saliktā priekšgala nāvējošās īpašības tika uzlabotas ar mongoļu plašo mobilitāti. Katram karotājam bija trīs vai četri palīdzības poniji. Zirgi paši spēja iztikt ar līdzenumu reti sastopamo barību, kā arī paciest Centrālāzijas klimata galējības. Šādu plašu ganāmpulku turēšana ļāva mongoļu vienībām nobraukt divas vai trīs reizes lielāku attālumu, nekā pat labākās dienas kājnieku vienības varēja doties gājienā.

Čingishans izveidoja jaunu mongoļu tautu no stepju atšķirīgajām ciltīm, kas vairākas paaudzes sagraus citas civilizācijas. Viņš to darīja, pateicoties savas personības spēkam, bet arī kopīgi izvēloties esošās ieroču tehnoloģijas saliktā priekšgala veidā. Ierocis ļoti mobilo un prasmīgo mongoļu strēlnieku rokās kopā ar mērķtiecīgu vadību veidoja Āzijas un Eiropas vēsturi vismaz nākamos trīs simtus gadu.


Kādu ēdienu Mongoļu karavīri būtu ēduši Čingishana 's iekarošanas laikā?

Es zinu, ka viņi būtu apēduši diezgan daudz aitas, bet kā viņi to būtu sagatavojuši? To grauzdēja? To uzvārīja?

Papildus tam, kas jau tika teikts, es šeit pārtraucu mongoļu karavīru diētu. Kopējiet/ielīmējiet šo atbildi:

Mongoļu karavīru diēta

Dr Timothy May citē pētījumu, kurā teikts, ka aktīviem mongoļu tēviņiem dienā vajadzīgas 3600 kalorijas pārtikas. Tiek lēsts, ka šis skaitlis ir nepieciešams, lai novērstu badu un nepietiekamu uzturu. Katrs cilvēks nesa savas devas, un viņa arbanā, kurā bija desmit vīri, bija trīs ar pusi žāvētas aitas un katls, ar kuru pagatavot gaļu. Standarta devas bija viena ūdens āda un pasta, kas izgatavota no piena pulvera.

Pārtikas avoti

Mongoļu vēlamais dzēriens bija kaut kas, ko sauc par kumiss. Tas ir raudzēts ķēves piens. Flāmu franciskāņu misionārs Viljams no Rubrukas novēroja kumisu izgatavošanu.

Viņš [Rubruck] aprakstīja, kā piens tika ieliets lielā ādas maisiņā un pēc tam saputots ar speciāli izstrādātu nūju vai nūju, kuras galva tika izdobta. Daļa maisījuma pārvērtās sviestā, un piens raudzējās un skābēja. Pēc tam sviests tika noņemts. Lielāka putošana palielināja fermentāciju un radīja dzidru un spēcīgāku šķidrumu.

Piena produkti, piemēram, kumīši, bija liela daļa no mongoļu uztura. Timotijs Mejs lēš, ka ķēve dienā saražo aptuveni 2,25–2,5 litrus piena vairāk, nekā nepieciešams pēcnācēju uzturēšanai. Mare 's piens ir aptuveni 20 kcal/oz, kas nozīmē, ka 2,25–2,5 litri piena var kādu uzturēt par 1400–1600 kcal dienā. Tas ir aptuveni trešdaļa no mongoļu karavīra 3600 kaloriju diētas. Turklāt viņi sagatavoja pastas, kas izgatavota no piena ar nosaukumu qurut. Šī pasta ir izgatavota no piena pulvera. Ja nepieciešams, parasti ziemā, kad piens nebija tik bagātīgs kā parasti, pastas ielika ūdenī, samaisīja un izdzēra. Kampaņā tiek ņemtas aptuveni 10 mārciņas žāvēta piena. Tajā pašā pētījumā, kas minēts iepriekš, teikts, ka šī uztura deva nodrošināja vismaz 800 kcal un 80 gramus olbaltumvielu. Atkal vēl viena liela daļa no 3600 kaloriju diētas.

Ja nebūtu pieejamas tādas piena maltītes kā iepriekš aprakstītās, mongoļi vārītu prosu ūdenī, lai iegūtu plānu zupai līdzīgu maisījumu. Tas nodrošināja uzturu. Parasti viņi kopā ar šo zupu ēda gaļu, iespējams, aitas. Viljams no Rubrukas arī aprakstīja, kas notika, kad kampaņas laikā nomira zirgs vai vērsis.

Ja zirgs vai vērši nomira, viņi nekavējoties žāvēja gaļu vai pagatavoja desu, ko viņi tur un tad ēda, bet pārējie tika kūpināti vēlākai lietošanai.

Gaļu pagatavo, vārot katlā ar sāli un nedaudz ūdens. Šo sautējumu sauca par shülen. Kad gaļa bija pieejama vai nu no žāvētas aitas, vai no kaut kā, kas iegūta medību laikā, tas bija galvenais veids, kā to pagatavot. Kampaņas laikā mongoļiem nebija daudz citu gaļas gatavošanas veidu, izņemot vārīšanu. Vēl viens interesants fakts ir tas, ka mongoļi izmantoja arī zirgu asinis, lai sevi uzturētu. Tas izklausās traki, un es domāju, ka tā vienkārši varētu būt. Marko Polo novēroja sekojošo:

Kad viņi dodas tālā ekspedīcijā, viņi neņem līdzi nevienu aprīkojumu, izņemot divas ādas pudeles pienam, mazu māla trauku, kurā pagatavot gaļu, un nelielu telti, lai pasargātu viņus no lietus. Un lielas steidzamības gadījumā viņi brauks desmit dienas, nededzinot uguni un neēdot maltīti. Šādos gadījumos viņi uzturēsies pie zirgu asinīm, atverot vēnu un ielaižot asinis mutē, dzerot, līdz viņiem ir pieticis, un pēc tam to noturot.

Tas izklausās traki, vai ne? Nu, Timotijs Mejs veica pētījumu par to, cik daudz kaloriju nāk no puslitra zirgu asiņu! Viņš lēš, ka zirgs var nodot trešdaļu asiņu bez nopietniem veselības apdraudējumiem. Jūs varat apgalvot, ka zirgs būs noguris, taču liela ietekme uz veselību šeit nebūtu jāņem vērā. Tas nozīmē, ka zirgs var nodrošināt aptuveni 14 pintes asiņu, katra puslitra var piegādāt 156 kcal uz puslitru. Tātad aptuveni 2184 kcal jeb gandrīz 2/3 no mongoļu 3600 kaloriju diētas. Katrs karavīrs kampaņā ņēma līdzi 5-8 zirgus. Maksimāli astoņi zirgi var nodrošināt karavīru ar aptuveni 6 dienu pilnu devu. Timotejs Mejs atzīmē, ka tas zirgus apgrūtinātu, un tas, iespējams, tika izmantots kā pēdējais līdzeklis, nevis kā pirmā izvēle, meklējot barību.

Kad bija pieejami graudaugi, tos izmantoja zupu sabiezēšanai vai kā putru.

Avoti un papildu lasāmviela

Mongoļu kara māksla pēc Timotejs Mejs

Stepu impērija: Vidusāzijas vēsture pēc Renē Grousset

Mongoļi un pasaules vēsture pēc Moriss Rosabi

Mongoļu iekarošanas vēsture pēc J. J. Saunders


Čingishana pieaugums

Impērija tika dibināta 1206. gadā, kad varu pieņēma mongoļu virsnieka dēls Temidžins un mainīja savu vārdu uz Čingishana (Rietumos veidots kā “Čingishans” un nozīmē “universāls valdnieks”). Jaunais karavīrs jau bija uzvarējis visspēcīgāko mongoļu līderi un izraisīja neapmierinātību savas tautas aristokrātijas vidū. Bet viņš izrādījās viens no lielākajiem vēstures līderiem.

Tajā laikā Mongolijas nomadu lauksaimnieki paļāvās uz zemi, lai tos uzturētu. Viņu kazu, aitu, zirgu un citu dzīvnieku ganāmpulki bija atkarīgi no bagātīgas zāles un ūdens, un mongoļiem vajadzēja bieži ceļot, lai tos uzturētu. Sausums un slimības var ātri iznīcināt viņu iztiku.

Čingishans palīdzēja mazināt šo nedrošības sajūtu. Viņš apvienoja Mongolijas ciltis un atbalstīja Ķīnas zemnieku ekonomiku, stabilizējot nodokļus un izveidojot lauku kooperatīvus. Viņš reformēja savas tautas likumus un ieviesa militāri feodālu valdības formu. Viņš pieņēma tirdzniecību un reliģisko brīvību un pieņēma tā laika progresīvās tehnoloģijas, piemēram, kāpostus, saliktus lokus, ādas bruņas un šaujampulveri.

Čingishana uzticīgie karavīri tika apbalvoti par savu īpašumu un kļuva par sava laika veiksmīgāko armiju. (Uzziniet par meklējumiem atrast Čingishana zaudēto kapu.)


Jurtu vēsture

Jurtas ir bijusi Vidusāzijas dzīves īpatnība vismaz trīs tūkstošus gadu. Pirmo rakstisko jurtas aprakstu, ko izmantoja kā mājokli, ierakstīja Hērodots no Halikarnasas, kurš dzīvoja Grieķijā laikā no 484. līdz 424. gadam pirms mūsu ēras. Hērodots, kurš tiek uzskatīts par vēstures tēvu, bija pirmā persona pasaulē, kas ierakstīja precīzu pagātnes izklāstu. Viņš aprakstīja jurtām līdzīgas teltis kā skitu-zirgu izjādes-nomadu nācijas-dzīvesvietu, kas dzīvoja Melnās jūras ziemeļos un Vidusāzijas reģionā apmēram no 600. gada pirms mūsu ēras. Tādējādi jurta tika aprakstīta pirmajā vēsturiskajā dokumentā pasaulē.

Kopš šī laika jurtas ir pastāvīgi izmantotas kā mītne Centrālāzijas plato mongoļu klejotājām. Arheoloģiskie pierādījumi pierāda, ka pirmā stepju karavīru impērija Vidusāzijā, huni, kas aktīvi darbojās no 4. līdz 6. gadsimtam pēc mūsu ēras, kā galveno mājokli izmantoja jurtas.

“Mongoļu slepenā vēsture, ”slavenā Mongolijas impērijas veidotāja Čingisa Kāna, kas Rietumos pazīstams kā Čingishana, klasiskais stāsts aprakstīja vairākus notikumus, kas saistīti ar jurtām. Piemēram, kad Temudžins tika kronēts kā Čingis Khaan:

... Un tā, kad cilvēki teltis ar filca sienām Tika uzticēts, Tīģera gadā (1206) viņi visi pulcējās pie Oņanas upes iztekas. Viņi pacēla balto standartu ar deviņām astēm un tur deva Čingisam (Čingis) Lielā Kāņa titulu..

…Lielais Čingis (Čingis) Khaan deva šādu rīkojumu:

"…Agrāk man bija astoņdesmit vīri, kas kalpoja par sargiem, tagad, pateicoties mūžīgo debesu spēkam, manu varu ir palielinājušas debesis un zeme, un es esmu nodevis visu tautu uzticībai, liekot viņiem pakļauties manam vienīgajam valdījumam. , tāpēc tagad no dažādiem tūkstošiem izvēlieties vīriešus, kas kalpos žurnālā, kā sargus un pieņemiet viņus darbā man. ”

… ”Naktssargi naktī guļ visapkārt Ger [jurta] Pils jūs, naktssargi, kuri stāv durvju sardzē, uzlauzīs visas naktī ienākošās personas, līdz viņu galvas būs sadalītas vaļā un pleci sabruks, tad metiet tās prom. Ja kāda persona naktī ierodas ar steidzamu ziņu, tai jāziņo naktssargiem un jāpaziņo ziņa man, stāvot kopā ar naktssargiem aizmugurē. Ger [jurta].”

… ”Ieeja un iziešana no Ger [jurta] Pils jāregulē naktssargiem. Pie durvīm naktssargu durvju sargi stāv blakus durvīm ger [jurta]. Divi no naktssargiem ieiet ger [jurta] un uzrauga lielos kumisu kannas. ”

… ”Nometnes vadītāji no naktssargiem dosies mums pa priekšu un uzstādīs Ger [jurta] Pils. Kad mēs ejam piekūnot un medīt, naktssargi dosies piekūņā un medīs kopā ar mums, bet tieši puse no viņiem paliks pie ratiem. ”

Citi ar ger (jurtu) saistīti konti ietver:

Altans Hučars un Saka Beki, visi savā starpā vienojoties, sacīja Temudžinam: „Mēs tevi padarīsim par hanu. Kad jūs Temjins kļūstat par khanu, mēs

Smalkas izskata jaunavas un dāmas,

Palatial gers (jurtas), un no svešiem cilvēkiem

Dāmas un jaunavas ar skaistiem vaigiem,

Un želejas ar smalkām kultūrām

Rikšos mēs nesīsim ... "

Pēc tam, kad viņi izveidoja Temujin Chinggis (Čingis) Khan… Subetei baatar (karavīrs Subetei) runāja:

… Es būšu filca pārklājums,

Es mēģināšu jums uztaisīt vāku

Es būšu jūtams vējlauzis,

Es mēģināšu tevi pasargāt

No vēja uz taviem Ger [jurta].

“Es neļaušu saspiesties

Es neļaušu sabrukt asu ratiņiem

Es pārvaldīšu telšu rati

… Cilaun Qayichi ar šiem diviem dēliem Tungge un Qasi arī ieradās, lai godinātu Chinggis (Čingis) khanu un tā runāja

Jūsu zeltaini slieksnis ”, tā sakot

Es dodu jums šos savus dēlus

Ja viņi novirzās no jūsu zelta sliekšņa,

Izbeigt viņu dzīvi un

The platas filca durvis”, Tā sakot,

Ja viņi atlaiž jums plašas durvis,

Iesit tos vēdera bedrē un

Jānis no Pian de Carpine, itāļu priesteris, kas vada misiju, lai nogādātu Mongolijas imperatoram vēstuli no pāvesta Inocenta IV, apraksta mongoļus un viņu dzīvesvietu 1246. gadā:

Viņu mājokļi ir apaļi un viltīgi veidoti ar klūgām un kātiem telts veidā. Bet pa vidu no augšpuses tiem ir atvērts logs, lai nodotu gaismu un izvadītu dūmus. Jo viņu uguns vienmēr ir pa vidu. Viņu siena ir pārklāta ar filcu. Viņu durvis ir izgatavotas arī no filca. Dažas no šīm [jurtām] var ātri sadalīt un atkal salikt kopā, un tās nēsāt uz zvēriem. Citus nevar uztvert, bet tos var novietot uz ratiņiem. Un lai kurp viņi dotos, vai nu uz karu, vai uz jebkuru citu vietu, viņi savus [jurtas] pārvadā līdzi. Viņi ir ļoti bagāti ar savām cīņām, tāpat kā kamieļi, vērši, aitas un kazas. Un es domāju, ka viņiem ir vairāk zirgu un ķēvju nekā visā pasaulē.

Viljams no Rubrukas, Franču misionārs un pētnieks 1253 sniedza līdzīgu un detalizētāku pārskatu:

Viņu mājas, kurās viņi guļ, balstās uz apaļa klūgu pamata, kas mākslīgi saliktas un sablīvētas: jumts sastāv no klūgām, kas augšā saplūst vienā mazā riņķī, no kura apaļš paceļ kaklu uz augšu kā skurstenis. ar baltu filcu un bieži uz filca gulēja mēteris vai balta zeme ar kaulu pulveri, lai tas spīdētu balti. Un dažreiz viņi to pārklāj ar melnu filcu. Filcs uz savas mājas kakla, to rotā ar skaistiem attēliem. Tāpat pirms durvīm viņi pakarina filcu, kurš bija ziņkārīgi pārkrāsots. Jo viņi tērē visu savu krāsaino filcu, krāsojot vīnogulājus, kokus, putnus un zvērus. Viņi padara savas mājas tik lielas, ka tajās ir trīsdesmit pēdas platumā. Lai izmērītu platumu starp viena no viņu ratiņiem, es redzēju, ka tas ir 20 pēdas garāks: un, kad māja atradās pie ratiem, tā stiepās pāri riteņiem katrā pusē vismaz dažas pēdas. Es vienā komandā saskaitīju 22 vēršus, uzzīmējot māju uz ratiņiem, vienpadsmit vienā secībā pēc ratiņu platuma un vēl vienpadsmit pirms tiem: pajūga ass bija milzīga, kā kuģa mastā. Un kāds vīrs stāvēja mājas durvīs, uz ratiņu priekšgala, ko izvilka vērši.

Itālijas tirgotājs Marko Polo bija vēl viens rietumnieks, kurš apmeklēja Mongolijas impēriju 14. gadsimtā. Viņš uzrakstīja, "Viņiem [mongoļiem] ir apļveida mājas, kas izgatavotas no koka un pārklātas ar filcu, un tās ceļo līdzi četrriteņu vagonos, lai kur arī dotos. Stieņu karkass ir tik glīti un prasmīgi uzbūvēts, ka to ir viegli nēsāt. Un katru reizi, kad viņi atver savu māju un to iekārto, durvis vienmēr ir vērstas uz dienvidiem. ” Šī orientācija, kas vērsta uz dienvidiem, joprojām ir izplatīta arī mūsdienās, un tai ir acīmredzamas priekšrocības cilvēkiem, kas dzīvo labi uz ziemeļiem no ekvatora.

Jurtas joprojām ir visizplatītākais dzīvesvietas veids Mongolijā un pat galvaspilsētā Ulanbatorā (dažreiz pazīstama kā Ulanbatora) vairāk nekā puse iedzīvotāju dzīvo jurtās. Liela daļa Mongolijas iedzīvotāju saglabā nomadu dzīvesveidu, un jurtas var redzēt visā valstī neatkarīgi no tā, vai tās ir stepēs, Gobi tuksnesī vai kalnu reģionos Mongolijas centrālajā un rietumu daļā.

Jurtas praktiskums, komforts un pārnesamība ļauj šiem cilvēkiem dzīvot senatnīgā veidā, ik pēc pāris mēnešiem pārvietojoties kopā ar saviem ganāmpulkiem, kuru vidū bieži ir aitas, kas nodrošina vilnu jurtu izolācijai, un jaki un zirgi, nodrošināt garus matus virvēm, kas satur kopā jurtas daļas.


Saturs

Salīdzinot ar Rietumu metodēm, mongoļi zirgu kopšanā izmanto ļoti "rokas nost". Zirgi netiek mazgāti vai baroti ar īpašu pārtiku, piemēram, graudiem vai sienu. Drīzāk viņiem vienkārši atļauts brīvi ganīties pa stepi, rakties pa sniegu, lai ziemā atrastu lopbarību. Tā kā daba tik labi nodrošina mongoļu zirgu, to audzēšana maksā maz vai neko. Šādi zirgi nav dārga greznuma lieta kā Rietumu kultūrā, bet praktiska ikdienas dzīves nepieciešamība. Gannieki uzskata savus zirgus gan par bagātības veidu, gan par ikdienas vajadzību avotu: transportēšanu, ēdienu un dzērienu. Mongoļu jātniekiem ir individuāli mīļākie zirgi. Katram ģimenes loceklim ir savs zirgs, kuram var tikt piemērota īpaša attieksme.

Mongolijā kūtis, ganības un staļļi ir izņēmums, nevis noteikums. Zirgiem parasti ir atļauts brīvi klīst, ja tie ir nepieciešami, tos var īslaicīgi sasiet. Šim nolūkam izmantotais sakabes statnis atšķiras no parastās Rietumu koncepcijas par stieni, kas novietots pāri diviem stabiem. Šādi darbi ir koksnes intensīvi, un uz stepju koki ir reti. Tā vietā zirgus var piesiet pie viena koka staba vai liela laukakmens. Tā kā zirgiem ir atļauts dzīvot gandrīz tāpat kā savvaļas zirgiem, tiem ir maz jākopj nagi. Nagi paliek neapgriezti un neuzkrītoši, un audzētāju pamatā nav. Neskatoties uz uzmanības trūkumu, mongoļu zirgiem ir cieti, spēcīgi nagi un tie reti sastopas ar pēdu problēmām. Vasaras laikā mongoļu zirgi bieži stāv upē, ja tā ir pieejama, lai novērstu kukaiņu nokļūšanu. [4]

Mongoļi saka, ka resniem zirgiem ir "zāle vēderā", bet liesiem zirgiem - "ūdens vēderā". Ganāmpulks dod priekšroku gariem ceļojumiem gadalaikos, kad zirgi ir labi baroti, lai pasargātu nogurušos vai plānos dzīvniekus no slodzes. [5] Īpaši pavasarī zirgi ir jutīgi pret spēku izsīkumu: "Līdz ziemas beigām dzīvnieki ir briesmīgs skats.… Zirgi ir pārāk trausli, lai tos varētu izjāt, un daži tik tikko var staigāt.… Kad parādās jaunā zāle, tomēr vietējās Mongolijas dzīvnieku šķirnes mēdz ļoti ātri atjaunoties. " [6] Zirgiem kopā ar aitām un kazām ir lielākas izredzes izdzīvot sarežģītos ziemas apstākļos nekā liellopiem un aitām, jo ​​viņi ar savām izveicīgajām lūpām spēj atdalīt sniegu no zāles. Kad nokļūst zudums, parasti parasti vispirms mirst liellopi, tad aitas, zirgi un visbeidzot kazas. Tādējādi zirgi ir otrie ziemcietīgākie dzīvnieki, kurus audzē mongoļi. [7]

Ķēves sāk kumeļot maijā un turpinās visu vasaru. [6] Slimi vai auksti kumeļi dažkārt tiks ņemti dīgļos, ietīti ādās vai filcos un novietoti blakus ugunij. [6]

Tipisks mongoļu ganāmpulks sastāv no 15 - 50 ķēvēm un želejām zem viena ērzeļa. Dažiem ērzeļiem ir atļauts pārvaldīt ganāmpulkus līdz 70 dzīvniekiem, lai gan tie tiek uzskatīti par izņēmuma indivīdiem. Ērzelim ir uzdevums vadīt ganāmpulku, apgādāt kumeļus un aizstāvēt ganāmpulku pret vilkiem. Ganāmpulka ērzelim, nevis cilvēka īpašniekam, ir uzticēta ganāmpulka ikdienas vadība. Elizabete Kendela 1911. gadā novēroja, ka: "Katrs zirgu bars ir ērzelis, kas asi skatās pēc ķēvēm, mežonīgi cīnās ar jebkuru citu ērzeli, kurš mēģina pievienoties ganāmpulkam. Man saka, ka īpašniekam ir tikai jāskaita savs ērzeļi, lai būtu pārliecināti, ka visas ķēves ir atnākušas mājās. " (Skatīt arī Ceļinieks Ķīnā)

Tā kā ķēves tiek izmantotas kumeļiem un slaukšanai, tās bieži netiek izmantotas darbam, tas ir ķēžu darbs. Vēlamie darba dzīvnieki ir zirgi, nevis ērzeļi. Darkhad etniskās grupas pārstāvji brauc ar ērzeļiem tikai reizi gadā, trīs īpašās ziemas dienās. [3] Katrā ganāmpulkā ir īpaši zirgi, ko izmanto virvēšanai, sacīkstēm, skaistumkopšanai vai izjādei distancē. Ganam var piederēt viens vai vairāki zirgu ganāmpulki, katrs ar savu ērzeli. [3] Jaunlaulātajam pārim vecāki dāvinās zirgus gan vīra, gan sievas pusē. Each family will give the couple 10 - 15 horses apiece and two stallions so that they can start up their own herd. The extra stallion is sold or traded away.

Mane trimming varies by region. Stallions are always left untrimmed a long, thick mane is considered a sign of strength. Geldings, however, are clipped. Among the Darkhad ethnic group, the forelock is cut short and the bridle path is left unclipped. Sometimes the mane of a horse will be clipped short except for one patch near the withers. Mongolians save the cut off mane of the horse for spiritual reasons. Both tail and mane hair can also be made into various spiritual and utilitarian products, i.e. spirit banners or rope. Manes are always left long in the winter to keep the horse warm. The sole grooming tool used is a brush. The tail is generally left unclipped. When a horse is gelded in the spring, the very tip of the tail may be cut off. Branding may or may not be done if it is, it is done in the fall. [3]

During races, the forelock is put in a topknot that stands up from the horse's head. The hairy part of the tail may also have a tie placed around it midway down. [8] For race horses, the owner will also have a wooden sweat scraper to clean off the horse after a race. After the Naadam, spectators will come up to touch the winning horses' mane and sweat as both a sign of respect and a way to imbibe good fortune. [8] The winning horse is also sprinkled with airag. [9]

Gelding is done when a colt is 2 – 3 years old. The date chosen for the event may be set by a lama so as to ensure good fortune. The colts to be castrated are caught and their legs are tied. The animals are then pushed on their side. The horse's topmost hindleg is tied to its neck, exposing its testicles. The genitals are washed, then cut off with a knife that has been cleaned in boiling water. Afterwards, the wound is rinsed with mare's milk, a practice intended to encourage healing. An observer reported, "The animal does not appear to experience much pain during the operation, but tends to be in a state of confusion when let loose on the steppe." [10] An entire family will typically join in the castration process depending on the number of colts to be castrated, several households may participate so that the castration may be completed in one day.

When the work of castration is completed, the testicles are used for ritual purposes. One of the amputated testicles is punctured with a knife so as to permit the insertion of a rope the rope is then fastened to the new gelding's tail with the assumption that once the testicle has dried, the wound will have finished healing. The remaining testicle is cooked in the hearth ashes and eaten by the head of the household to acquire the strength of the stallion. [11]

Mongolian nomads have long been considered to be some of the best horsemen in the world. During the time of Genghis Khan, Mongol horse archers were capable of feats such as sliding down the side of their horse to shield their body from enemy arrows, while simultaneously holding their bow under the horse's chin and returning fire, all at full gallop. In 1934, Haslund described how a herdsman breaking in a semi-wild horse was able to ungirth and unsaddle his horse as it bucked underneath him. He wrote, "It is a pleasure to see the Mongols in association with their horses, and to see them on horseback is a joy. . [T]he strength, swiftness and elegance of a Mongol surpass that of any ballet dancer." [12] This same skill in horsemanship held true in antiquity. Giovanni de Carpini, a Franciscan friar who visited Mongolia during the 1240s, observed that "their children begin as soon as they are two or three years old to ride and manage horses and to gallop on them, and they are given bows to suit their stature and are taught to shoot they are extremely agile and also intrepid. Young girls and women ride and gallop on horseback with agility like men." [13] Today as in the Middle Ages, the education of a modern Mongolian horseman begins in childhood. Parents will place their child on a horse and hold them there before the child can even hang on without assistance. By the age of 4, children are riding horses with their parents. [14] By age 6, children can ride in races [8] by age 10, they are learning to make their own tack.

Carpini noted that the Mongols did not use spurs (these were unknown in Central Asia at that time) they did, however use a short whip. This whip had a leather loop at the end when the rider was not using it, he would let it hang from his wrist so that he could have his hands free to perform tasks, e.g. archery. [15] It was taboo to use the whip as a prop or to touch an arrow to the whip such crimes were punishable by death. It was also punishable by death to strike a horse with a bridle. [2] Haslund noted that as of 1934, it was considered a crime to strike a horse with a whip in areas in front of the stirrup. [16]

Mongolian cultural norms encourage the humane treatment of horses. After spending years in the country, Haslund could not recall even one instance of seeing a horse mistreated. Indeed, he found that Mongols who had been to China and observed their use of horses typically came back "filled with righteous wrath and indignation over the heavy loads and cruel treatment that human beings there deal out to their animals." [17] In Genghis Khan's time, there were strict rules dictating the way horses were to be used on campaign. The Khan instructed his general Subutai, "See to it that your men keep their crupper hanging loose on their mounts and the bit of their bridle out of the mouth, except when you allow them to hunt. That way they won't be able to gallop off at their whim [tiring out the horses unnecessarily]. Having established these rules--see to it you seize and beat any man who breaks them. . Any man. who ignores this decree, cut off his head where he stands." [18]

Mongolian tack differs from Western tack in being made almost completely of raw hide [19] and using knots [20] instead of metal connectors. Tack design follows a "one size fits all" approach, with saddles, halters and bits all produced in a single size. Mongolian tack is very light compared to western tack hobbles in particular are about half the weight of their Western counterparts. [19] The Mongol pack saddle can be adjusted to fit yaks and bactrian camels. [19]

The modern Mongolian riding saddle is very tall, with a wooden frame and several decorated metal disks that stand out from the sides. It has a high pommel and cantle, and is placed upon a felt saddlecloth to protect the horse's back. The horse's thick coat also provides a barrier that helps prevent saddle sores. In the Middle Ages, the Mongols used a different style of saddle, the chief difference being that the cantle flattened out in the rear rather than rising to a peak like the cantle of a modern Mongolian saddle. This allowed the rider greater freedom of movement with a minimal saddle, a mounted archer could more readily swivel his torso to shoot arrows towards the rear. [15]

The Mongolian saddle, both medieval and modern, has short stirrups rather like those used by modern race horses. [15] The design of the stirrups makes it possible for the rider to control the horse with his legs, leaving his hands free for tasks like archery or holding a catch-pole. [15] Riders will frequently stand in the stirrups while riding. [2]

The design of the Mongolian saddle allows only marginal control of the gait. In most situations, the horse will decide the gait on its own, while the rider is occupied with other tasks such as herding cattle. Very often, a Mongol horse will choose to canter. The occasional Mongol horse will have an ambling gait, which is to say that it will lift both its left hooves at one time, then both its right hooves at one time, etc. Such horses are called joroo, and is said that they "glide as if though on ice, so smoothly that one can trot along on one holding a full cup and not spill any of the contents." [2] The Mongols, who ride hundreds of kilometres on horseback across the roadless steppe, place a very high value on horses with a smooth gait. [3]

Mongolian horsemen are required to learn everything necessary to care for a horse. This is because they do not typically employ outside experts such as trainers, farriers or veterinarians and must do everything themselves. For particularly difficult problems, the local elders may be called in or even an outside vet if one can be found. Materials such as books on horse training or medical care are uncommon and seldom used. Informally knowledge is passed down orally from parent to child.

Though Mongolian horses are small, they are used to carry quite large, heavy riders. This ability is due in part to the riders' habit of frequently switching off horses so as not to overtax any particular animal. However, Mongol horses are also very strong. A Darkhad horse weighing only 250 kg. can carry a load of 300 kg—the equivalent of carrying another horse on its back. When pulling a cart, a team of four Mongol horses can draw a load of 4400 lbs for 50–60 km a day. [21]

Horses are usually not ridden until they are three years old a two-year-old horse may be broken with a particularly light rider so as to avoid back problems. The breaking process is quite simple: the rider simply gets on and lets the horse run until it is exhausted. Then the horse is taught to respond to the pull of the reins. In Khövsgöl Province, the horses may be worked in round pens. This practice is not common in the rest of Mongolia however wood is too scarce to be wasted on fencing. [3]

Since individual horses are ridden relatively infrequently, they become nearly wild and must be caught and broken anew each time they are used. A herdsman must first catch the horse he wants to do this, he mounts a special catch-horse which has been trained for the purpose. Carrying an urga, a lasso attached to a long pole, he chases after the horse he wants and loops the urga around its neck. The catch-horse helps the herdsmen pull back on the looped horse until it grows tired and stops running. At this point another rider will come up and put a saddle on it and mount. The horse will run and buck until it recalls its earlier training and allows itself to be ridden. [12] The catching part may take up to several hours, depending on the terrain, the catcher's skill, and the equipment used. [4]

Mongol horses are best known for their role as the war steeds of Genghis Khan, who is reputed to have said: "It is easy to conquer the world from the back of a horse." The Mongol soldier relied on his horses to provide him with food, drink, transportation, armor, shoes, ornamentation, bowstring, rope, fire, sport, music, hunting, entertainment, spiritual power, and in case of his death, a mount to ride in the afterlife. The Khan's army, weapons, war tack and military tactics were built around the idea of mounted cavalry archers, and to a lesser extent light and heavy cavalry. In the Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan is recorded as urging his general Subutai to pursue his enemies as though they were wild horses with a catch-pole loop around their neck. [22] Captured enemy rulers were sometimes trampled to death by horses. [23]

As a war vehicle, the Mongol horse compared favorably with other breeds in use at the time. Mongol horses needed little water [19] and did not need to be fed daily rations of grain, as many European breeds did. Their ability to forage beneath the snow and find their own fodder allowed the Mongols freedom to operate without long supply trains, a factor which was key to their military success. Mongol horses were bred to survive in harsh conditions, making it possible for the Mongols to mount successful winter campaigns against Russia. The excellent long distance endurance of the Mongol horse allowed warriors to outlast enemy cavalry during battle the same endurance granted the Mongols a communications advantage across their widely spread out fronts, since messages had to be conveyed by horse. The main disadvantage of the Mongol horse as a war steed was that it was slower than some of the other breeds it faced on the battlefield. However, this drawback was compensated for by the fact that it was typically required to carry less weight than other cavalry horses. Although the Mongol horse is almost a pony, it acquired a fearsome reputation among the Mongols' enemies. Matthew Paris, an English writer in the 1200s, described the small steeds as, "big, strong horses, which eat branches and even trees, and which they [the Mongols] have to mount by the help of three steps on account of the shortness of their thighs." (Though short, the Mongols did not actually use steps to mount.) [24]

It is said that a Mongol warrior's horse would come at his whistle and follow him around, doglike. Each warrior would bring a small herd of horses with him (3 - 5 being average, but up to 20) as remounts. They would alternate horses so that they always rode a fresh horse. [25] Giovanni de Carpini noted that after a Mongol warrior had ridden a particular horse, the man would not ride it again for three or four days. [26]

Soldiers preferred to ride lactating mares because they could use them as milk animals. In times of desperation, they would also slit a minor vein in their horse's neck and drain some blood into a cup. This they would drink either "plain" or mixed with milk or water. [25] This habit of blood-drinking (which applied to camels as well as horses) shocked the Mongols' enemies. Matthew Paris, an English writer in the 1200s, wrote scornfully, ". they [the Mongols] have misused their captives as they have their mares. For they are inhuman and beastly, rather monsters than men, thirsting for and drinking blood. " [24]

The Mongol armies did not have long supply trains instead, they and their horses lived off the land and the people who dwelt there. Ibn al-Athir observed, "Moreover they [the Mongols] need no commissariat, nor the conveyance of supplies, for they have with them sheep, cows, horses, and the like quadrupeds, the flesh of which they eat, naught else. As for their beasts which they ride, these dig into the earth with their hoofs and eat the roots of plants, knowing naught of barley. And so, when they alight anywhere, they have need of nothing from without." [27] It was important for the Mongols to find good grazing for their herds of remounts, or failing that, to capture enemy foodstuff. During the conquest of the city of Bukhara, Genghis Khan's cry, "Feed the horses!" indicated that soldiers were to pillage and slaughter the inhabitants. [23] Genghis Khan warned Subutai to be careful to conserve his horses' strength on long campaigns, warning that it would do no good to spare them after they were already used up. [22]

Mongolian horses have long been used for hunting, which was viewed as both a sport, a means of livelihood, and as training for military ventures. Animals like gazelles were taken with bow and arrow from the backs of horses, while other game was rounded up by mounted riders. [28] To the Mongols, the tactics used in hunting game from horseback were little different from those used in hunting enemy cavalry on horseback. Armies would also hunt for food while on the march, an activity which could wear out the horses. Genghis Khan, concerned that his soldiers would use up the strength of their horses before reaching the battlefield, instructed general Subutai that he should set limits on the amount of hunting his men did. [29] As of 1911, horsemen still hunted wolves from horseback. Elizabeth Kendall observed, "These Mongolian wolves are big and savage, often attacking the herds, and one alone will pull down a good horse or steer. The people wage more or less unsuccessful war upon them and at times they organize a sort of battue. Men, armed with lassoes, are stationed at strategic points, while others, routing the wolves from their lair, drive them within reach." (see also A Wayfarer in China).

The Mongols used many tools meant specifically to attack mounted riders. The spear used by warriors had a hook at the end which was used for dehorsing opponents and snagging the legs of enemies' horses. They also used whistling arrows to frighten opposing horses. Mongols had no qualms about shooting the mounts out from under other cavalrymen there was even a particular type of arrow especially designed for the purpose. [30] For this reason, horses of well-to-do individuals were armored with iron or hardened leather plates called lamellae. [30] The armor was a full body covering with five distinct pieces that shielded the head, neck, body and hindquarters. The Mongols preferred to use a whip to urge their horses on during battle, while their European opponents preferred spurs. The whip provided them with a tactical advantage because it was more safe and effective than spurs: a whip can be felt through armor and does not harm the horse, whereas spurs cannot be felt through armor and injure the horse. [30] When the Mongols wished to conceal their movements or make themselves appear more numerous, they would sometimes tie a tree branch to their horse's tail to raise dust, obscuring their position and creating the illusion of a larger group of horsemen. [31]

A story goes that Jebe shot the horse out from under Genghis Khan during a battle. The animal in question had had a white-speckled muzzle. When Jebe was captured later, he admitted flat out to the Khan's face that he had fired the arrow in question. Genghis Khan admired the man's courage, and instead of killing Jebe, he took him into his own army. Many years later, when Jebe had become a general, Genghis Khan became concerned that his subordinate had ambitions to replace him. To allay the Khan's suspicions, Jebe sent him a gift of 1,000 horses with white speckled muzzles. [2]

Horses were used to guide the Mongols' makeshift boats across rivers. Pian de Carpine described the procedure as follows: "When they come to a river, they cross it in the following way, even if it is a large one: the chiefs have a round, light skin, around the top of which they have loopholes very close together through which they pass a cord, and they stretch it so that it bellies out, and this they fill with clothes and other things, and then they bind it down very tightly. After that they put their saddles and other hard things on it, and the men likewise sit on it. Then they tie the boat thus made to the tail of a horse, and a man swims along ahead leading it or they sometimes have two oars, and with them they row across the water, thus crossing the river. Some of the poorer people have a leather pouch, well sewn, each man having one and in this pouch or sack they put their clothing and all their things, and they tie the mouth of the bag tightly, and tie it to the tail of a horse, then they cross as stated above." [24]

The Mongols covered continental distances on horseback. In particular, general Subutai's European army was fighting a full 5,000 km distant from their homeland in Mongolia. Since his forces did not travel on a direct beeline but made various diversions en route, the 5,000 kilometers actually translates to a horseback ride that has been estimated at 8,000 km in total length. [32]

Messages were carried rapidly throughout the Mongol empire by a pony-express style relay system in which riders would pass messages from station to station, switching to a fresh horse each time. A similar system of horse-expedited mail was still practiced in Mongolia as of 1911. Elizabeth Kendall described it as follows: "Under the treaties of 1858 and 1860 a post-route between the Russian frontier and Kalgan was established, and in spite of the competing railway through Manchuria, a horse-post still crosses the desert three times a month each way. The Mongols who are employed for the work go through from city to city in seven days, galloping all the way, with frequent changes of horses and, less frequent, of men."

It is believed that the spirit of a stallion resides within his mane thus, a long, thick mane is considered a mark of a strong animal. The mane of a stallion is never cut, though the manes of geldings are. After a stallion dies, the owner may save the mane. The first foal of the year will also have a blue scarf tied around its neck this foal is believed to represent the strength of the year's crop of foals. When a Mongol rider passes an ovoo, they may offer some of their horse's tail hairs before proceeding. [8]

A family may have a sacred horse among their herd, which is signified by a blue scarf tied around the neck. The horse is generally never ridden, though on rare occasions the head of the household may do so. Historically, horses were sacrificed on special occasions it is recorded that 40 horses were sacrificed at the funeral of Genghis Khan. [33] When a Mongol warrior died, his horse would be killed and buried with him. [34] In 1253, William of Rubruk observed the scene of a recent funeral where the skins of sixteen horses had been hung up on long poles, with four skins pointing towards each corner of the compass. There was also kumis (mare's milk) for the deceased to drink. [35]

Mare's milk was used in a variety of religious ceremonies. In "The Secret History of the Mongols," it is recorded that Genghis Khan sprinkled mare's milk on the ground as a way to honor a mountain for protecting him. Before battle, the Mongols would sprinkle mare's milk on the ground to ensure victory. Sprinkled milk was also used for purification envoys to the Khan were required to pass between two fires while being sprinkled with mare's milk to cleanse them of evil devices and witchcraft. William of Rubruck noted in 1253 that, "If he [a Mongol master of the house] were to drink [liquor while] seated on a horse, he first before he drinks pours a little on the neck or the mane of the horse." [35]

In modern times, Mongol horses may be blessed with a sprinkling of mare's milk before a race. [36] After the national Naadam races, the winning horses are sprinkled with mare's milk, and the top five horses in each racing category are named the "airag's five." [37] After a Naadam wrestling match, the winner will take a sip of airag and toss some into the air. Milk may also be sprinkled after people who are leaving on a journey. [38]

When a favorite horse dies, the owner may dispose of the remains in several ways. To show respect, they may take the horse's skull and place it on an oovo, a pile of rocks used in the shamanic religion. Others believe that when a horse is killed for food, its skull should be left in the field because of the sanctity of the horse. It is considered disrespectful for a horse's skull or hooves to be stepped upon for this reason, such remains may be hung from a tree.

Horses are believed to have spirits that can help or hurt their owner after death. When a deceased horse's spirit is content, the owner's herd will flourish if not, then the herd will fail.

Mythology Edit

According to shamanic tradition, a person's soul is called a wind horse (хийморь, Khiimori). The wind horse is depicted on the official Mongolian coat of arms, which features a winged horse. Among the shamanistic tngri, the 99 highest divinities of Tengerism, there is an equestrian deity called Kisaγa Tngri who protects souls (and also riches). Another divinity, Ataγa Tngri, is a protector of horses themselves. [39] The drum used by shamans was often made of horse skin, the drum itself standing for "the saddle animal on which the shaman rides vai the mount that carries the invoked spirit to the shaman." [40]

In the Gesar epic, the demons ride unnatural horses that have no tails. [41]

Folklore and Song Edit

Like many cultures, the Mongols have tales of magical horses. In one story, a Mongolian Robin Hood figure stole livestock from the rich and gave them to the poor. One day he was being pursued by lawmen on horseback, and he came to a river his horse could not cross. It looked like he would soon be caught, but seeing a mountain in the distance, he prayed to it for help and his horse rose from the ground and flew over the river to the top of the mountain. [42]

In Mongolia, the horse is "omnipresent in song, in stories, and in art." [3] One legend revolves around the invention of the horsehead fiddle, a favorite Mongolian instrument. In this tale, a shepherd named Namjil the Cuckoo received the gift of a flying horse he would mount it at night and fly to meet his beloved. A jealous woman had the horse’s wings cut off, so that the horse fell from the air and died. The grieving shepherd made a horsehead fiddle from the now-wingless horse's skin and tail hair, and used it to play poignant songs about his horse. [43]

Another legend about the origin of the horsehead fiddle claims that it was invented by a boy named Sükhe (or Suho). After a wicked lord slew the boy's prized white horse, the horse's spirit came to Sükhe in a dream and instructed him to make an instrument from the horse's body, so the two could still be together and neither would be lonely. So the first horsehead fiddle was assembled, with horse bones as its neck, horsehair strings, horse skin covering its wooden soundbox, and its scroll carved into the shape of a horse head.

Horses are common characters in Mongolian folklore. The frequently recurring motif of the young foal who becomes separated from his family and must make his way in the world alone is a type of story that has been described as endemic to Mongolian culture. [44] The horse also figures prominently in song. In 1934, Haslund wrote, "Of forty-two Mongolian songs which I noted down in my years in Mongolia no less than seventeen are about horses. They have titles like: 'The little black with velvet back,' 'The dun with lively ears,' and they are all full of touching evidences of the Mongol's love for his horses." [45]

Given the deep integration of horses into Mongolian culture, the Mongols have a large vocabulary of equine terminology. There are over 500 words in the Mongolian language describing the traits of horses, with 250 terms for coat color/pattern alone. [46] In Mongolian literature, this rich vocabulary leads to constructions that seem wordy in English, i.e. a Mongol poet may say, "He rode a 3 year old dun mare with a black stripe down its back" rather than "he rode a horse."

Epic poems Edit

Mongolian epic poems always assign a special horse to the hero. The horse may be born at the same time as the hero or just before him. It possesses great strength, speed, magic, and intelligence. The horse may have the power to magically change its shape it provides the hero with counsel, and can even predict the future. As regards the latter ability, one plot development that occurs repeatedly is the disaster that results when the hero disregards his horse's advice. In other epics the hero cannot defeat his monstrous manggus foe without asking for help from his horse. The horse may even use its magical powers to assist the hero in courting his beloved. "From the frequency of the horse motif in this tradition, one could easily get the impression that horses are as important as their masters. We have not yet found any epic in this nomadic tradition that is without a steed and the assistance it provides." [47]

In the Jangar Epic Edit

One of the three traditional Mongolian oral epics is the Jangar, in which horses play roles almost as important as those of the heroes. The most famous horse from the epic is Aranjagaan, Jangar's mount. Aranjagaan was sired by a seven-year-old Heavenly Horse who came down to mate with a mortal mare by a lake. (There is intertextual conflict about this later in the epic, where Aranjagaan's father is described as an ordinary horse who was ridden by Jangar's father.) Aranjagaan's capabilities are described in epic style: "He was red all over and had a body the size of a hill. He had a huge tail and ears. He had hooves the size of a sheep pen and a butt as hard as cast iron. As soon as he was born, he hissed and frightened away wolves, which had stalked near the stall. At the age of one, he joined a war. At two, he fought wars north and south. He was in his prime at the age of seven. Aranjagaan hissed excitedly, making tree leaves, grasses and stones thunder and even frightening boars dozens of baraa away. His power seemed to radiate from within him. One leap forward would bring his rider hundreds of meters away. His power would hold anyone in great awe. His red brilliance was fiery and dazzled everyone who saw him. . Even Aranjagaan's roaring shook enemies and weakened their knees." [48] Nor are these epic descriptions limited to Aranjagaan. Even the nameless horses like Altan Gheej's crimson mount have poetically glorified capabilities. The crimson horse is described as having a tail 80 feet long and ears like pestles. It can run at a full gallop for two months straight and swim across a sea for 25 days. Moligen Tabuga's scarlet horse is described as being as large as forty-nine seas. Sanale's red horse has ears like iron bars. These sizes and abilities are typical for all epic steeds in the Jangar. In particular, the size of the tail, ears, and hooves are praised, though occasionally one will find the horse's legs described as tree trunks, etc. [48]

It is the horses, not the heroes, that claim divine ancestry. Indeed, the motif of the divinely born horse is repeated in the epic, as when the history of Aletan Kale's wondrous buff and white horse is given: "The horse's father was from heaven. The heavenly horse met and mated with a beautiful female horse at the bank of Kas Lake. Then the heavenly horse licked her face and flew away, leaving a heartbroken companion. The female horse gave birth to the buff and white horse with endless expectations." Horses like the buff and white and Aranjagaan are themselves considered divine on account of their parentage. [48]

In Mongolian epics, horses save their riders in battle and even fight alongside of them. When Jangar is struck with a poisoned arrow, Aranjagaan realizes what has happened and carefully carries Jangar to safety. To keep his swaying master from toppling off, the horse skillfully leans back and forth, even going so far as to crouching down his forelegs or hindlegs when ascending and descending hills to keep his back level. When they arrive at a house, he lays down to let his rider gently fall off. On another occasion, Aranjagaan runs to a place where a battle is occurring and begins to fight, riderless, alongside the hero. During fights, the epic narrative typically switches back and forth between describing the combat of riders and the actions of their horses, i.e. the hero throws a spear, then the hero's horse lunges forward to pursue an enemy. In battles, the poets describe the horse as a self-willed actor. There are few descriptions of rein-pulling or leg guidance rather, the impression is that the horse chooses how best to carry on the fight as it works in concert with its rider. The horses bite and kick enemies, and will even bite enemy horses. During a battle, Sanale's red horse "provided him with inexhaustible power. It kicked the enemies eighteen thousand times from the left and then eighteen thousand times from the right so that the spears, broadswords, and arrows were broken. It fought like a huge eagle extending its wings." [48] Horses can be wounded. In a long-running battle, Altan Gheej's crimson horse is "beaten black and blue and scabbed all over. With eyes covered by blood, the horse was nearly trapped by the enemy several times. Seeing the situation was urgent, Altan Gheej whipped the horse to the sea and swam for awhile. The blood was cleaned and the wounds healed up magically." [48] The horses are eager for battle. When Hongor's livid horse sees Hongor equipped for war, it kicks and snorts with excitement.

The horses often have adventures of their own, like getting caught in a whirlpool and escaping by grabbing a branch in their teeth and hauling themselves onto shore. The poet does not fail to describe the horse's exhausted collapse on the bank, the rider's concern, and the horse's subsequent recovery as it stands up, joyfully shakes its mane, and begins cropping grass. Mongolian poets consider it important to describe a horse's feelings and actions as well as those of the human characters. For example, when Jangar stops to drink at a cool stream and delights in the beauty of nature, the poet also notes that Aranjagaan grazes and enjoys a roll in the grass. On another pleasant excursion, Aranjagaan's rider begins to sing, and Aranjagaan moves his hooves in time with the song.

Heroes and horses converse with one another on a regular basis. The hero will urge and rebuke his horse, demanding more speed, as when Altan Gheej says to his crimson horse after 50 days and nights of running, "Aren't you known as a 'flying arrow' or a 'blue eagle'? Why haven't you crossed over your enclosure after so many days? If so, when can we arrive at our destination?" or when swimming a sea, "A hero in need is a hero indeed. Where is your mighty power? How can you get adrift like this?" [48] The horses will also tell their riders when they can't give anymore. For example, when Sanale is fleeing a devil, his sweating, exhausted horse says, "My master, I have tried my best and cannot run faster. Please get rid of the devil, or else we will both have trouble." On another occasion, Sanale's red horse neighs loudly to wake his master from a deep, drunken slumber, then rebukes him for sleeping when he should be killing devils. Sanale, ashamed, apologizes to the horse. The red horse replies impassively, "Drinking delays and drinking hard kills." [48]

Heroes in the Jangar show great affection for their horses. They will rub their horse's nose affectionately and care for them in times of hardship. When Sanale was forced to flee into the Gobi desert, he and his horse became exhausted with hunger and thirst. The horse saw a plant that it recognized as poisonous, but couldn't resist eating it. Immediately it collapsed in agony. Weeping, Sanale grasped the horse's neck and told it that he had nothing to give it but his own flesh, but that they must go on or their enemies would kill them. The horse was deeply moved at his master's concern and cried. It heroically managed to rise and bear Sanale away. When the horse later collapses, Sanale tries to help it stand. Eventually, afraid that his pursuers will harm the weakened horse, Sanale hides it in a cave while he fights them off. During an exhausting battle, Sabar's maroon horse gasps, "Master, we have fought for seven days, and I feel dizzy and giddy due to lack of food and water. Can we just rush out and find something to eat?" Sabar leaves the battlefield, finds fodder for his horse, takes a nap while it eats its fill, then returns to the battle and continues fighting. [48]

The epic horses are considered precious possessions, and the quality of a man's horse reveals his status and wealth. When introducing a new hero, the poets inevitably include a description of the hero's prized steed. One of the descriptions of Sanale, for instance, is that "he rides a crimson horse rarely seen on the steppes." Sabar is introduced by describing that he has "an unparalleled sorrel steed worth 100,000 slaves." [48] The horse's fittings are also important. The poet describes Jangar's beautiful clothes, then adds that Aranjagaan was fitted with a golden halter and long silver reins. Because of their value, horses are also important in peace negotiations for example, Jangar seeks to buy peace from Sanale by offering him the twelve best horses in his herd. The horses, Aranjagaan in particular, are also subject to ransom demands by covetous enemy Khans. On various occasions, hostile Khans demand Aranjagaan as tribute to avoid war. One of the threatened consequences for a defeated enemy is to have all his horses driven off by the victor.

The horses play key roles throughout the story, providing information and assisting the heroes against enemies against enemies. Sanale is almost seduced by a hungry devil disguised as a beautiful temptress, but his horse snorts and blows up her skirt, revealing shaggy legs. Altan Gheej's crimson horse is hitched to the eaves of an enemy Khan's palace and pulls until the entire palace collapses. Sabar's maroon horse magically finds out that Sabar's homeland is being attacked and conveys a message from Jangar to Sabar, asking him to return and save him.

The fact that horses serve as meat animals in Mongolian culture is not ignored in the epic. Sanale warns his red horse that if their enemies catch them, they will eat him and make his equine skin into boots. The heroes carry dry horse meat as provisions as they ride off. During a critical moment in a battle, Hongor says to his horse, "You are my dearest brother, a rare horse. You have never been beaten. If you fail today, I will skin you and eat your meat!" [48] The horse finds fresh strength and fights on. On another occasion, a different hero warns Aranjagaan that the horse will suffer a similar fate if he doesn't arrive in time to help in a critical battle. Aranjagaan replies that he will make it in time, but that if the hero does not win the battle when they arrive, Aranjagaan will buck him off and break his neck.

A Catalogue of Horses Edit

In keeping with the Mongolian tradition of not giving horses names, most of the horses in the Jangar do not have names, but are instead identified by their physical traits. Each horse has a color that sets him apart from the rest.

  • Jangar - Aranjagaan, Aranzhale
  • Altan Gheej - red horse
  • Mengen Shigshirge - Oyomaa, the black horse
  • Sanale - crimson/red horse
  • Big Belly Guzan Gongbei - black horse "elephant-like"
  • Moligen Tabuga - scarlet horse
  • Sabar - sorrel horse with white nose, maroon horse
  • Hongor - livid horse
  • Daughter of Wuchuuhen Tib - yellow horse
  • Jaan Taij - yellow leopard horse
  • Odon Chagaan - yellow horse

Other Edit

In the Mongolian version of chess, the most powerful piece is the horse. [49]