Budistu klostera paliekas, Sarnath

Budistu klostera paliekas, Sarnath


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528. gadā pirms mūsu ēras dzimis jauns princis vārdā Sidharta Gvatama. Viņš dzīvoja aizsargātu dzīvi, un līdz 30 gadu vecumam viņš devās pasaulē, kur saskārās ar slimībām un nāvi. Pasaules ciešanu aizkustināts, viņš nolēma atteikties no sava greznā dzīvesveida un meklēt atbrīvošanos no ciešanām.

Pēc vairāku gadu meklējumiem Gautama atrada apskaidrību, meditējot zem Bodhi koka. Viņš saprata, ka atbrīvošanās nāk no prāta disciplinēšanas, un viņš devās uz Sarnatu, lai mācītu citiem, kā sasniegt šo garīgo stāvokli. Briežu parkā Sarnatā viņš dalījās savējā jaunatklātā gudrība un Četras cēlas patiesības ar pieciem cilvēkiem, kuri bija tik pārsteigti, ka kļuva par Budas pirmajiem mācekļiem.


Tibetas templis

Tibetas templis atrodas budistu klosteris un templis, kas atrodas Sarnatā, Utarpradēšas štatā, 1 km attālumā no Sarnatas dzelzceļa stacijas un 9 km attālumā no Varanasi krustojuma. Tas ir viens no populārākajiem budistu tempļiem Sarnatā un starp ievērojamām vietām, ko apmeklēt Sarnatā budistu svētceļojumu tūres ietvaros Indijā.

Tibetas templis, kas iebūvēts 1955. gadā, ir viena no ļoti godājamām svētceļojumu vietām Sarnatā. Tibetas templis pašlaik atrodas Lhadhan Chotrul Monlam Chenmo Trust pārvaldībā. Templis, kas iebūvēts tradicionālā Tibetas arhitektūras dizainā, ietver dažas pārsteidzošas iezīmes. Tempļa ieeja ir apsargāta un skaisti izrotāta ar divu lauvu sarežģītiem kokgriezumiem. Lielajā atklātajā kompleksā var redzēt gaiši rozā stupu, ko cēluši tibetieši, lai parādītu pateicību Indijas valdībai par patvēruma piešķiršanu bēgošajam Dalailamam. Tas nozīmē arī godināt visus tos, kuri gāja bojā Tibetas brīvības cīņās, un tos, kuri Tibetā turpina ciest apspiešanu.

Templis, kas veidots pēc tradicionāla Tibetas arhitektūras dizaina, atrodas atpūtas vietā Šakjamuni Budas vai Budas statuja. Šī budistu svētnīca ir dekorēta ar Thangkas, kas ir Tibetas budistu gleznas. Templi rotā arī Tibetas budistu gleznas uz sienām un griestiem, kas ir viena no galvenajām iezīmēm. Tāpat kā lielākajā daļā budistu tempļu, arī šeit var atrast virkni lūgšanu riteņu, kas atbrīvo papīra ruļļus ar uzrakstītiem dziedājumiem, pagriežot tos pulksteņrādītāja virzienā. Kopumā Tibetas templis ir viena no obligātajām vietām Sarnatā visu vecumu un kopienu cilvēkiem, jo ​​šī vieta piedāvā patiesu garīguma būtību, kas mūsdienu haotiskajā pasaulē ir obligāta.


Saturs

Sarnath visā tās garajā vēsturē ir bijis pazīstams kā Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana un Isipatana. Mrigadava nozīmē "briežu parks". "Isipatana" ir nosaukums, ko izmanto Pali kanonā, un tas nozīmē vietu, kur svēti cilvēki (Pali: isi, Sanskrita: riši) piezemējās. [2]

Leģenda vēsta, ka, kad topošais Buda piedzima, daži dēvas nokāpa, lai paziņotu par to 500 rišiem. Vēl viens nosaukuma skaidrojums ir tāds, ka Isipatana bija tā sauktā, jo, gudrie, dodoties pa gaisu (no Himalajiem), izkāpj šeit vai sāk no šejienes ar savu gaisa lidojumu. Pacceka Budas, septiņas dienas pavadījušas pārdomās Gandhamādanā, peldas Anotatta ezerā un pa gaisu nonāk cilvēku dzīvesvietās, meklējot almu. Viņi nolaižas uz eartPacceka Budas nāk Isipatana no Nandamūlaka-pabbhāra. [3]

Xuanzang citē Nigrodhamiga Jātuka (J.i.145ff), lai izskaidrotu Migadāya izcelsmi. Pēc viņa teiktā, Briežu parks bija Jātakas Benaresa ķēniņa dots mežs, kur brieži varēja nemaldīties. Migadāju sauca par to, ka tur varēja netraucēti briedēt.

Sarnath cēlies no sanskrita Sāranganātha, [4], kas nozīmē “Brieža kungs” un attiecas uz citu veco budistu stāstu, kurā Bodhisatva ir briedis un piedāvā savu dzīvību ķēniņam, nevis stirnai, kuru pēdējais plāno nogalināt. Karalis ir tik aizkustināts, ka izveido parku kā briežu patvērumu. Parks aktīvi darbojas mūsdienās.

Gautama Buda un Isipatana Edit

Pirms Gautama (topošais Buda) sasniedza apgaismību, viņš atteicās no askētiskajām nožēlas un saviem draugiem-Pankavagijas mūkiem. [5] Septiņas nedēļas pēc apgaismības zem Bodhi koka Bodh Gaja, Buda atstāja Uruvelu un devās uz Isipatanu, lai atkal pievienotos viņiem, jo, izmantojot savus garīgos spēkus, bija redzējis, ka viņa pieci bijušie pavadoņi spēs ātri saprast Dharmu. Ceļojot uz Sarnatu, Gautamam Budam nebija naudas, lai samaksātu prāmim par Gangas šķērsošanu, tāpēc viņš to šķērsoja pa gaisu. [ nepieciešams citāts ] Vēlāk, kad karalis Bimbisāra par to uzzināja, viņš atcēla nodevu par askētiem. Gautama Buda atrada savus piecus bijušos pavadoņus un apgaismoja viņus ar Dharmas mācībām. Tajā laikā tika dibināta apgaismoto kopiena Sangha. Sprediķis, ko Buda teica pieciem mūkiem, bija viņa pirmais sprediķis, saukts par Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. Tas tika dots Asalha Puja pilnmēness dienā. [6] Pēc tam Buda arī pavadīja savu pirmo lietus sezonu Sarnatā [7] Mulagandhakuti. Līdz tam laikam Sangha skaits bija pieaudzis līdz 60 (pēc tam, kad Jasa un viņa draugi bija kļuvuši par mūkiem), un tāpēc Buda viņus izsūtīja uz visām pusēm, lai ceļotu vieni un mācītu Dharmu. Visi 60 mūki bija arhati.

Papildus pirmajam sprediķim tiek minēti vairāki citi ar Budu saistīti notikumi, kas notikuši Isipatanā. Tas bija šeit, kad kādu dienu, rītausmā, Yasa ieradās pie Budas un kļuva par Arhat. [8] Arī Isipatanā tika pieņemts noteikums, kas aizliedz izmantot sandales no talipota lapām. [9] Citā reizē, kad Buda uzturējās Isipatanā, no turienes aizbraucis no Rājagahas, viņš ieviesa noteikumus, kas aizliedz izmantot noteiktus miesas veidus, ieskaitot cilvēka miesu. [10] Divas reizes, kamēr Buda atradās Isipatanā, Māra viņu apciemoja, bet bija jādodas prom satraukta. [11]

Bez iepriekš minētās Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, uzturoties Isipatanā, Buda sludināja vairākas citas sutas, tostarp

  • Saccavibhanga Sutta,
  • Pañca Sutta (S.iii.66f), populārāk pazīstams ar nedaudz maldinošo nosaukumu Anattalakkhana Sutta
  • Rathakāra vai Pacetana Sutta (A.i.110f),
  • abas Pāsa Suttas (S.i.105f),
  • Samaya Sutta (A.iii.320ff),
  • Katuvija Sutta (A.i.279f.),
  • diskurss par Parāyana Metteyyapañha (A.iii.399f) un
  • Dhammadinna Sutta (S.v.406f), ko slavenais Bhikkhuni Dhammadinna sludināja savam bijušajam vīram.

Šķiet, ka daži no ievērojamākajiem Sangha pārstāvjiem laiku pa laikam ir dzīvojuši Isipatanā starp ierakstītajām sarunām Isipatanā, starp Sariputta un Mahakotthita, [12] un viens starp Mahākotthita un Citta-Hatthisariputta. [13] Ir minēts arī diskurss, kurā vairāki mūki, kas uzturas Isipatanā, centās palīdzēt Hannai viņa grūtībās. [14]

Kā pastāstīja Udapāna Jātaka, netālu no Isipatanas atradās ļoti sena aka, kuru Budas laikā izmantoja tur dzīvojošie mūki.

Isipatana pēc Budas rediģēšanas

Saskaņā ar Mahavamsa teikto, otrajā gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras Isipatanā bija liela mūku kopiena. jo mums tiek teikts, ka Mahā Thūpa dibināšanas ceremonijā Anurādhapurā divpadsmit tūkstoši mūku bija klāt no Isipatanas, ko vadīja vecākais Dhammasena. [15]

Ķīniešu budistu mūks Ksuanzans [16], kurš septītajā gadsimtā devās uz Indiju, atrada piecpadsmit simtus mūku, kas studēja Hīnayānu Isipatanā.

Sanghārāmas iežogojumā atradās aptuveni 60 m (200 pēdas) augsta, spēcīgi uzbūvēta vihāra, kuras jumtu pārklāja zeltaina mango figūra. Vihāras centrā bija Budas statuja, kas pagrieza Likuma riteni, un uz dienvidrietumiem atradās ķēniņa Ašokas celtās akmens stupas paliekas. Tā priekšā bija akmens stabs, lai iezīmētu vietu, kur Buda teica savu pirmo sprediķi. Netālu atradās vēl viena stupa vietā, kur Pankavaggijas pavadīja laiku meditācijā pirms Budas ierašanās, un vēl viena vieta, kur pieci simti Pačekas Budas ienāca Nībānā. Netālu no tās atradās cita ēka, kurā topošais Buda Metteyya saņēma pārliecību, ka kļūs par Budu.

Dieviņš. (389-94) min Ašoka kā Upaguptu iebiedējošu, viņa vēlmi apmeklēt vietas, kas saistītas ar Budas darbību, un tur uzcelt stupas. Tā viņš apmeklēja Lumbiņī, Bodhimūlu, Isipatanu, Migadāju un Kusinagaru, to apstiprina Ašokas litiskie pieraksti, piem. Rokka Edikts, viii.

Budisms uzplauka Sarnatā karaļu un turīgu tirgotāju dēļ, kas atradās Varanasi. Līdz trešajam gadsimtam Sarnath bija kļuvis par nozīmīgu mākslas centru, kas sasniedza savu zenītu Gupta periodā (4. līdz 6. gs. P.m.ē.). 7. gadsimtā līdz brīdim, kad Ksuanzans apmeklēja Ķīnu, viņš atrada 30 klosterus un 3000 mūku, kas dzīvoja Sarnatā.

Sarnath kļuva par galveno centru Sammatijas budisma skolā, kas ir viena no agrīnajām budistu skolām. Tomēr Herukas un Taras attēlu klātbūtne liecina, ka šeit (vēlāk) tika praktizēts arī Vadžrajana budisms. Vietnē tika atrasti arī Brahmini dievu, piemēram, Šivas un Brahmas, attēli, un joprojām atrodas Jain templis (Chandrapuri), kas atrodas ļoti tuvu Dhamekh Stupa.

Kumaradevi, Gahadvalas karaliene, uzcēla pēdējās struktūras Sarnatā. 1193. gadā viņas mazdēlu Jaichandu no Kannaujas sakāva Muhammeda Gori ģenerālis Kutbs al Dins Aibaks. 12. gadsimta beigās Turcijas musulmaņi atlaida Sarnatu, un vēlāk vietne tika izlaupīta celtniecības materiālu dēļ.

Izipatanas atklāšana Rediģēt

Isipatana tiek identificēta ar mūsdienu Sarnatu, kas atrodas 9,7 km (6 jūdzes) no Varanasi. Aleksandrs Kaningems [17] atrada Migadāju, ko attēlo smalks koks, kura platība ir aptuveni 800 m (pusjūdze) un kas stiepjas no lielā Dhamekha kapa ziemeļos līdz Čakundi pilskalnam dienvidos.

Isipatana Edit leģendārās īpašības

Saskaņā ar budistu komentāru rakstiem visi Budas sludina savu pirmo sprediķi Migadājā Isipatanā. Tā ir viena no četrām avijahitatthānāni (nemainīgām vietām), pārējās ir bodhi-pallanka, vieta pie Sankasas vārtiem, kur Buda vispirms pieskārās zemei, atgriežoties no Tāvatimsas, un gultas vieta Gandhakuti Jetavana [18]

Iepriekšējos laikos Isipatana dažreiz saglabāja savu nosaukumu, tāpat kā Phussa Budas, Dhammadassī Budas un Kassapa Budas laikā. Kaspapa ir dzimusi tur. Bet biežāk Isipatana bija pazīstama ar dažādiem vārdiem (šos vārdus skatīt zem dažādu Budu nosaukumiem). Tādējādi Vipassī Budas laikā tas bija pazīstams kā Khema-uyyāna. Visiem Budām ir ierasts iet pa gaisu uz Isipatanu, lai pateiktu savu pirmo sprediķi. Gautama Buda tomēr gāja visu ceļu, astoņpadsmit līgas, jo zināja, ka šādi viņš satiks Upaku, Ajivaku, kuram viņš varētu kalpot. [19]

Sarnath ir dzimtene 11. Tirthankara Shri Shreyansanatha Bhagwan. Tā ir vieta, kur notika 4 no 5 Šri Shreyansanatha Bhagwan kalyanak (labvēlīgiem dzīves notikumiem).

Šri Digambārs Džains Šrejannats Mandīrs, Singhpuri, Sarnath

Tā ir vieta 4 kalyanak no Šri Šrejansnata Bhagvana. Milzīgs ashtakod stumbrs (astoņstūra pīlārs), kura augstums ir 31,4 m (103 pēdas), joprojām parāda tās vēsturisko izveidi. Tiek uzskatīts, ka tā ir 2200 gadi vecs. Šī tempļa galvenā dievība ir zilās krāsas Šrī Šrejansatha Bhagvana elks, 75 cm augsts Padmāsanā. Šī tempļa mākslinieciskais darbs ir nepārspējams. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Galvenās izraktās drupas ir uzskaitītas zemāk, parasti ziemeļu-dienvidu un rietumu-austrumu kārtībā.

Lielāko daļu Sarnatas seno ēku un būvju turki sabojāja vai iznīcināja. Tomēr starp drupām var atšķirt:

  • The Dharma čakra Jina Vihar uzcēla Kumaradevi, Gahadavala Govindačandras sieva (ap 1114–1155 m.ē.). Uzraksts piemin šīs masīvās viharas ēku. Tajā minēts, ka Govindačandra bija pasargājusi Varanasi no Turuškām. Šī bija pēdējā celtne Sarnatā, pirms tā tika izpostīta. [20]
  • The Ašokas pīlārs šeit uzceltais, ko sākotnēji pārvarēja "Ashoka lauvas galvaspilsēta" (šobrīd izstādīts Sarnath muzejā), tika salauzts turku iebrukumu laikā, bet bāze joprojām atrodas sākotnējā vietā. Lauvas galvaspilsēta tagad simbolizē mūsdienu Indijas štatu. Lauvas galvaspilsēta kalpoja par pamatu lielai 32 spieķu akmens dharma-čakrai, kas tika atrasta sadalīta daudzos gabalos. [21] Indijas Augstākās tiesas zīmogs parāda Dharmas čakru tādu, kādai tai sākotnēji bija jābūt. [22]
  • Drupas Mulagandhakuti vihara atzīmējiet vietu, kur Buda pavadīja savu pirmo lietus sezonu. Šis bija galvenais templis, ko iezīmēja Ašokas pīlāra klātbūtne priekšpusē. Tuvumā tika atrasts slavenais Sarnath Buda dharmachakra pravartana mudra.
  • The Dharmarajika Stūpa ir viena no nedaudzajām pirms Ashokan saglabātajām stupām, lai gan ir saglabājušies tikai pamati. Pārējā Dharmarajika stupa tika pārcelta uz Varanasi, lai to izmantotu kā celtniecības materiālus 18. gadsimtā. Tajā laikā relikvijas (kaulu fragmenti) zārkā tika atrastas Dharmarajika stupā. Šīs relikvijas vēlāk tika iemestas Gangas upē, bet zārks ir saglabāts.
  • The Dhamek Stūpa tā ir iespaidīga struktūra, 39 m (128 pēdas) augsta un 28 m (93 pēdas) diametrā.
  • The Čakhandi stupa piemin vietu, kur Buda satika savus pirmos mācekļus, kas datēti ar piekto gadsimtu vai agrāk, un vēlāk to papildināja islāma izcelsmes astoņstūra tornis. Pēdējos gados tiek veikta restaurācija.
  • Digambar Jain Mandir: lai gan pašreizējā struktūra ir 19. gadsimtā, tā aizņem senu vietu.
  • Mūsdienu Mulagandhakuti Vihara ir templis, ko 1930. gados uzcēla Mahabodhi biedrība, ar skaistiem sienu gleznojumiem ar slavenā Sarnath Budas kopiju dharmachakra pravartana mudra. [23] Aiz tā atrodas Briežu parks (kur vēl redzami brieži).
  • The Sarnatas arheoloģijas muzejs atrodas slavenā Ashokan lauvas galvaspilsēta, kas brīnumainā kārtā izdzīvoja 45 pēdas zemē (no Ašokanas pīlāra augšdaļas) un kļuva par Indijas valsts emblēmu un valsts simbolu uz Indijas karoga. Muzejā ir arī slavens un izsmalcināts Budas Budas tēls Dharmachakra pozā.
  • Ir arī Bodhi koks, kuru iestādījusi Anagarika Dharmapala un kas izaugusi no Bodhi koka griešanas Bodh Gaya.

Budistiem Sarnath (vai Isipatana) ir viena no četrām Gautamas Budas norādītajām svētceļojumu vietām, bet pārējās trīs ir Kušinagara, Bodh Gaja un Lumbini.

Sarnath ir izstrādāta kā svētceļojumu vieta gan budistiem no Indijas, gan ārvalstīm. Vairākas valstis, kurās budisms ir galvenā (vai dominējošā) reliģija, piemēram, Taizeme, Japāna, Tibeta, Šrilanka un Mjanma, ir izveidojušas tempļus un klosterus Sarnatā attiecīgajai valstij raksturīgajā stilā. Tādējādi svētceļniekiem un apmeklētājiem ir iespēja izjust budistu arhitektūras pārskatu no dažādām kultūrām. Ir 24 metrus augsta (80 pēdas) Budas statuja, kas uzcelta 14 gadu laikā (no 1997. līdz 2011. gadam) ar kopīgiem Indo-Taizemes centieniem. [24] Tiek teikts, ka to iedvesmojuši Bamijana Budas. [25]

Tūristu ierašanās Sarnatā [26]
Gads Starptautisks Iekšzemes Kopā
2013 362,113 838,566 1,200,679
2014 374,268 899,457 1,273,725
2015 388,102 924,552 1,312,654
2016 409,242 957,320 1,366,562
2017 430,682 1,024,589 1,455,271

Plāksne, uz kuras Letīcijas Elizabetes Lendones dzejolis Sarnat, Bodas piemineklis ir pamatots, parāda tās tobrīd novecojušo stāvokli, un viņas vārdi, salīdzinot pasaules reliģijas, uztver acīmredzamo budisma vājumu tā laika izcelsmes valstī (1832).

Sarnath ir viena no Rudyard Kipling's vietām Kima. [27] Teshoo Lama uzturas Tirthankharu templī Sarnatā, kad viņš nedodas svētceļojumos. Kims viņu satiek pēc tam, kad viņš pamet Svētā Ksaviera skolu.


Sākotnēji viņa pīšļiem vajadzēja aiziet tikai Šakju klanam, kuram piederēja Buda, bet seši klani un karalis pieprasīja ķermeņa relikvijas. Lai izvairītos no cīņas, Brahmins Drona sadalīja relikvijas desmit daļās, astoņas no ķermeņa relikvijām, vienu no Budas kremēšanas ugunskuru pelniem un otru no katla, ko izmantoja relikviju sadalīšanai, un ko viņš paturēja sev. [2] Pēc Budas Parinibāna, viņa relikvijas bija nostiprinājušas un pielūdza stupās astoņu valstu karaļi: Ajatasattu, Magadhas ķēniņš līdz Vaishali licčaviem, Kapilavastu sakijas, Allakappa Bulis, Ramagrama kolijas līdz Vethadipas brahmanam līdz Mallasai no Pavas un uz Kušinagaras Mallas [3]

Stupa ir piemineklis, kas īpaši paredzēts šādu relikviju glabāšanai. Bieži vien tie tika ievietoti lādītēs (piemēram, Kanishka zārks vai Bimaran zārks).

Tha dalās Budas relikvijās ar Brāhmana Dronu astoņiem ķēniņiem (četri ir redzami). Atvieglojums no gleznotāju alas, Kizil alas, aptuveni 500.g.

Karš par relikvijām: sienas gleznojums ar karavīriem un Brahminu Dronu, Gleznotāju ala, Kizila alas, aptuveni 500.g.

Vēlāk Ašoka izraka relikvijas un izmantoja relikvijas (kuras, domājams, bija sadalītas 84 000 porcijās), un bija licis uz tām stupas visā viņa pārvaldītajā reģionā. [4] Daudzas mirstīgās atliekas tika nogādātas citās valstīs. Ashokavadana stāsta par to, kā Ašoka pārdalīja Budas relikvijas pa 84 000 stupu, ar relikviju izplatīšanu un stupu uzbūvi Jakšas izpildījumā. [5]

Kad ķīniešu svētceļnieki Faksians un Ksuanzans gadsimtus vēlāk apmeklēja Indiju, viņi ziņoja, ka lielākā daļa seno vietu ir izpostītas. [6]

The Lokapannatti (11./12. Gadsimts [7]) stāsta par Magadhas karali Ajatashatru, kurš savāca Budas relikvijas un paslēpa tās pazemes stupā. [8] Budas relikvijas aizsargāja mehāniski roboti (bhuta vahana yanta) no romu visaya valstības, līdz tos atbruņoja karalis Ašoka. [7] [9] [1. piezīme]

Mahaparinirvana sūtrā teikts, ka no Budas četriem acu zobiem (ilkņiem) vienu pielūdza Indras debesīs, otro - Ghandara pilsētā, trešo - Kalingā, bet ceturto - Rāmāgramā Nagas ķēniņš. [10] Katru gadu Šrilankā un Ķīnā zobu relikvijas tiktu parādītas pa ielām. [11] Agrāk relikvijām bija likumīgas tiesības uz īpašumu, un relikvijas saturošu stupu iznīcināšana bija smags noziegums, ko uzskatīja par dzīvās personas slepkavību. [12] Dienvidaustrumu Āzijas tradīcija vēsta, ka pēc viņa parinirvānas dievi izplatīja Budas 800 000 ķermeņa un 900 000 galvas matu visā Visumā. [13] Saskaņā ar 5. gadsimta Teravadas teikto Budhagosa ar relikvijām bija viens no Theravada kritērijiem, kas noteica pareizu klosteri. [13] Buda ir paredzējusi daudzu relikviju piedzīvojumus, jo tie izplatīja dharmu un deva leģitimitāti valdniekiem. [14]

Ir teikts, ka visas Budas relikvijas kādu dienu pulcēsies pie Bodhi koka, kur viņš sasniedza apgaismību, un pēc tam veidos savu ķermeni, sēžot sakrustotām kājām un veicot dvīņu brīnumu. [15] Ir teikts, ka relikviju pazušana šajā brīdī signalizēs par Maitrejas Budas atnākšanu. [16] Ksuanzangas tulkotajā Nandimitravadanā teikts, ka Budas relikvijas parinirvānā nogādās sešpadsmit lieli arhat un nostiprinās lielā stupā. Tad šī stupa tiks pielūgta, līdz tā iegrims zemē līdz zelta ritenim, kas ir Visuma pamatā. Šajā versijā relikvijas neiznīcina uguns, bet ievieto galīgajā relikvijārā dziļi zemē, iespējams, lai tās atkal parādītos. [17]

Iepriekšējie Budas arī atstāja relikvijas Budhavamsā, un tajā minēts, ka Sobhita, Paduma, Sumedha, Atthadassi, Phussa, Vessabhu un Konagamana budu relikvijas ir izkliedētas.

Buda mācekļu relikvijas, piemēram, Sariputta un Maugglayana, tika saglabātas arī stupās (kā Sančos).

Kaut kad piektā gadsimta vidū ķīniešu svētceļnieks Daorongs devās uz Afganistānu, apmeklējot svētceļojumu vietas. In Nagarahara bija kaula gabals no Budas galvaskausa augšdaļas četras collas garš. Pilsētā atradās arī personāls un dārgakmeņu relikvija, kurā bija daži zobi un mati. Tika teikts, ka ēna tika izvirzīta uz klinšu sienas, kas piederēja Budai, kā arī pēdu nospiedumu kopums un vieta, kas godināta par to, ka Buda mazgāja halātu. Šeit zemē grimst templis, kuru, kā teikts, uzcēlis Buda, un uz sienas, kā teikts, ir viņa raksts. [18] Baktrā tika turēts Budas zobs. [19] Bamjanā Budas zobs tika glabāts kopā ar ķakravartīna karaļa zobu. [20] Ghandaras grieķu budisma mākslas agrīnais šedevrs un viens no pirmajiem Budas attēlojumiem - Bimaranas zārks tika atklāts stupā netālu no Jalabadas Afganistānas austrumos. Lai gan zārkā ir uzraksts, kurā teikts, ka tajā ir dažas Budas relikvijas, kastes atvēršanas laikā relikvijas netika atklātas. [21]

Pirmie Budas mācekļi Trapusa un Bahalika saņēma no viņa astoņas matu šķipsnas, kuras viņi atveda uz dzimto pilsētu Balku un iestiprināja zelta stupā pie vārtiem. [22]

Lu kalnu templis, uz austrumiem no Losandželosas, Kalifornijā, ir apgalvojis, ka saņem vairāk nekā 10 000 sarīras, ieskaitot divus zobus un vienu matiņu, kas, domājams, pieder Gautama Budai. [23] Lielākā daļa šo relikviju tika ziedotas no klosteriem visā Vjetnamā. [24]

Budas relikvija atrodas Budas Dhatu Jadi Bangladešā zem četrām Budas statujām. Budas Dhatu deva Ven. U Paññya Jota Mahathero 1994. gadā Mjanmas Valsts Sangha Maha Nayaka komiteja. [25]

Gredzeni no Budas, Nagarjunas, Longčenpas, Marpas un Milarepas 2013. gada oktobrī apmeklēja Chubachu Butānu no Bodhgaya Šrilankas. [26]

Budas relikvija tika nostiprināta Sakjaminu Čedajas 2002. gada karaliskajā vietā Oudongā. Piecdesmit gadus agrāk šī relikvija tika nogādāta no Šrilankas uz Pnompeņu, bet atkal tika nogādāta pēc tam, kad karalis Sihanuks pauda bažas par pilsētu sabrukumu Pnompeņas apkārtnē. [27] Kambodžas karalis Sihanuks 1952. gadā no francūžiem saņēma Budas relikviju. [28] 1950. gadu relikvijas nesen tika nozagtas Odongas kalnā un joprojām ir pazudušas. [29]

Zelta urnas, kurā teikts, ka tajā ir Budas relikvijas, tika izvilkta no kalnu svētnīcas, izraisot valsts mēroga medības, un tā tika atgūta 2014. gada 5. februārī.

Urnas pazušana, kurā, domājams, ir Budas mati, zobi un kauli, un vairākas nelielas statujas, atklājās decembrī un izraisīja sašutumu valstī, kurā ir vairākums budistu.

"Viss vēl ir urnā," ziņu aģentūrai sacīja valsts policijas pārstāvis Kirts Šantarīts.

Saskaņā ar leģendu, pirmā Budas relikvija Ķīnā parādījās vāzē 248. gadā pēc mūsu ēras, ko atveda Kang Senghui, lai parādītu vietējo valdnieku. [30] Wu Sun Quan karalis neveiksmīgi mēģināja iznīcināt zobu, pakļaujot to dažādām pārbaudēm. [31] Leģendās Daoksuāns tiek attiecināts uz Budas relikvijas Daoksuāna zoba pārnešanu, kas ir viena no četrām zobu relikvijām, kas Tangu dinastijas laikā tika nostiprinātas galvaspilsētā Čanānā. Viņš esot saņēmis relikviju nakts vizītes laikā no dievības, kas saistīta ar Indru. [32] Imperators Taizong mēģināja sadedzināt zobu relikviju, bet nespēja to izdarīt. [33]

Saskaņā ar viņa biogrāfiju, kad viņš atgriezās 645. gadā pēc mūsu ēras, Ksuanzans atgriezās no septiņpadsmit gadus ilgā svētceļojuma uz Indiju ar “vairāk nekā sešiem simtiem mahajānas un hinajānas tekstu, septiņām Budas statujām un vairāk nekā simts sarijas relikvijām”. [30]

Imperators Veņs un Sui dinastijas ķeizariene Vu godināja Budas relikvijas. Daoksuaņa Ji gujin fodao lunheng (Budas-daoistu pretrunu pagātnē un mūsdienās pabeigto [ar tiem saistīto dokumentu kolekcija] pabeigta 661) stāsta, ka neilgi pēc piedzimšanas imperators Vens tika nodots budistu „dievišķajai mūķenei” līdz gada vecumam. 13. Pēc kļūšanas par imperatoru imperators Wens vadīja trīs Budas relikviju pārdalīšanas kampaņas 601., 602. un 604. gadā. Relikvijas tika iekļautas 107 pagodās kopā ar dievišķās mūķenes attēliem. [34]

2010. gadā Gandamas Budas galvaskausa paliekas tika nostiprinātas Qixia templī Nanjingā. Daļējs kauls tika turēts karaļa Ašokas pagodā, kas uzcelta 1011. gadā zem bijušā Čanganas tempļa Nandzjinā. [35] [36] 1987. gadā zem Famen tempļa tika atklāta kamera un tika atklāts pirksta kauls, kas piederēja Gautama Buda. 2003. gadā pirkstu kauls bija viens no 64 kulturāli nozīmīgiem artefaktiem, kas oficiāli tika aizliegti izbraukšanai no Ķīnas izstādēm. [37] 2009. gadā relikvija tika iekļauta pasaules augstākajā stupā, kas nesen uzcelta Famen tempļa domēnos. [38]

Divi kaulu fragmenti, kas, domājams, piederēja Gautama Budai, ir nostiprināti Yunju templī. [39] Saskaņā ar Tangu dinastijas ierakstiem Ķīnā bija 19 karaļa Ašokas pagodas, kas glabāja Sakjamuni relikvijas. Tiek uzskatīts, ka septiņas no šīm pagodām ir atrastas. [35] Pašlaik zobu relikvija tiek glabāta Pekinā, kamēr vidējā pirksta kauls atrodas Siaņas pilsētas Šaņsji provincē. [40]

1072. gadā japāņu svētceļnieks Džojins apmeklēja Budas zobu Kaifengā, imperatora sūtnim bija jāatver durvis uz ēku, kurā tā atradās septiņu dārgumu zālē. [41]

Pekinas zobs tika atklāts 1900. gadā, kad tas tika atklāts Zhaoxian pagodas drupās ārpus Pekinas. Tuvumā esošā Lingguangas klostera mūki gruvešos atrada kasti ar uzrakstu "Sakjamuni Budas svētie zobu relikvijas", ko Šanhui rakstīja 963. gadā pēc mūsu ēras. Viņi turēja molāru iekšā līdz pat savam klosterim līdz 1955. gadam, kad to nodeva Ķīnas budistu asociācija. [42] Birmas vēstniekam tika jautāts, vai Birmai varētu būt relikvija, ko piedāvāja Ķīnas premjerministrs Džou Enlajs. Kad delegācija ieradās izņemt zobu, tas tagad tika ievietots zelta dārgakmeņu zārkā, nevis stiklā, un tas tika aizdots tikai uz astoņiem mēnešiem. Pekinas zobu templis tika rekonstruēts 1966. gadā budistu delegāciju priekšā no 10 valstīm. [43]

Buda piederēja vienai no šīm astoņām sakju ģimenēm, kurām viena astotā daļa no viņa relikvijām bija glabāta Kapilavastu. Saskaņā ar PBS sērijas Nāves noslēpumi, urna, kas satur šos materiālus, tika atklāta stupā Piprahvā netālu no Birdpūras [vēsturiskais britu variants kā Birdpore], budistu svēta struktūra Indijas Utarpradēšas Basti rajonā, ko veica arheologs amatieris Viljams Klakstons Peps 1898. gadā [44] Indijas Arheoloģijas dienests (ASI) identificēja Piprahvu kā Kapilavastu. 1971. gadā K.M. Srivastava turpināja rakšanu un atklāja 22 kaulus divās ziepakmens urnās, datējot tās ar 5. gadsimtu pirms mūsu ēras. [ nepieciešams citāts ] Ziņojums par šiem atklājumiem tika iesniegts 20 gadus vēlāk, 1991. gadā. Nepāla apstrīd Piprahwa kā Kapilavastu, kuri uzskata, ka Tilaurakot ir Kapilavastu, tomēr relikvijas 1978. gadā izstādīja Šrilanka. [6]

Budas mirstīgās atliekas, kas piederēja trešajam vai ceturtajam gadsimtam, tika atrastas izrakumu laikā 1962.-1963. Gadā Devni Mori, kas ir budistu arheoloģiskā vieta netālu no Šamalādži Gudžaratā. Budas pelni tika atrasti zelta pudelē, kas ietīta zīda audumā, vara traukā, kas tika turēts zārkā. 1700 gadus vecā zārka uzrakstā Brahmi rakstā ir minēts “Dashabala Sharira Nilaya”-tas nozīmē “Kunga Budas ķermeņa relikviju mājvieta”. Mirstīgās atliekas tiek saglabātas Barodas Vadharas Universitātes Maharadža Sajajirao Universitātes Mākslas fakultātes Arheoloģijas un senās vēstures katedras muzejā. [45] [46]

Kad 2006. gada oktobrī tika uzcelts pirmais Globālās Vipassana pagodas kupols Mumbajā, Gautamas Budas kaula relikvijas tika nostiprinātas kupola centrālajā bloķēšanas akmenī, padarot to par pasaulē lielāko struktūru, kas satur Budas relikvijas. Relikvijas sākotnēji tika atrastas stupā Bhattiprolu, Guntur apgabalā, Andhra Pradesh, Dienvidindijā. [47] Tās ir ziedojusi Indijas Mahabodhi biedrība un Šrilankas premjerministrs, lai tās glabātu Vispasaules pagodā. [48] ​​Orisas pilsētā Lalitgiri tika atklāts zārks, kurā, domājams, ir Budas kauli. [49]

Culvmsa vēsta leģendu Silakala un karali Moggallanu, kurš trimdā devās uz Indiju. Silakala un kļuva par iesācēju Bodhgajā, kur viņam iedeva matu relikviju. Moggallana aizveda šo relikviju atpakaļ uz Šrilanku un ievietoja to kristāla zārkā un sarīkoja regulāru festivālu par godu matiem. [4]

Lai gan karalis Bimbisaras vakaros ļāva sievietēm harēmā apmeklēt Budu viņa klosterī, sievietes vēlējās matu un nagu stupu, ar kurām viņi varēja godināt Budu jebkurā laikā. Pēc tam, kad Bimbisara runāja ar Budu, kurš izpildīja viņu lūgumu. [50]

Radžagrā Buda devās noskūt matus, taču neviens no mūkiem nebija gatavs griezt Budas matus, tāpēc viņi atrada jaunu zēnu, vārdā Upali no friziera. Mēģinot labāk nogriezt matus, viņš kontrolēja ķermeņa stāvokli un elpošanu, nonākot ceturtajā transā - dhyana. Budas māceklis, ieraugot šo Anandu, paņēma no viņa skuvekli, tad domāja, ko darīt ar matiem, uzskatot, ka tā ir nešķīsta lieta. Buda viņam aizrādīja un lika Anandai nogādāt matus katlā ģenerālim Gopali, kurš to ņēma kaujā, kļūstot par uzvarētāju. [51]

Saskaņā ar Xuanzang teikto, simtiem tūkstošu cilvēku katru dienu ieradās, lai godinātu zobu relikviju Kanjakubjā. [11]

Saskaņā ar Pali Dathavamsa (zobu hronika) Budas māceklis, vārdā Khema, paņēma zobu no Budas bēru uguns un nodeva to Kalingas (Indijas) ķēniņam Brahmadattai. [31] Dantapurā zobu nigantas aizved pie karaļa Gushava, pēc tam hinduistu imperatora Pandu, kurš mēģina to iznīcināt vairākos dažādos veidos. Nespējot iznīcināt zobu, karalis pievēršas budismam un godina zobu.

Simts gadus pirms Ksuanzangas vizītes eftalīta huni iznīcināja vairākas relikvijas Kašmirā un Gandarā. Lai izvairītos no vienas tīrīšanas, mūks aizbēga uz Indiju un veica svētceļojumu uz daudzām svētvietām. Kādu dienu viņš sastapa savvaļas ziloņu baru. Viņš mēģināja paslēpties kokā, bet ziloņi viņu aizveda pie viena mazuļa, kuram kājā bija bambusa šķembas. Viņš apstrādāja ziloņu brūci, un tas viņu apbalvoja ar zelta lādīti, kurā bija Budas zobs. Atceļā viņš pārbrauca pāri upei, kas draudēja viņus nogremdēt pusceļā. Pasažieri noskaidroja, ka tā ir Naga vēlme pēc Budas relikvijas, un pārliecināja mūku iemest zobu upē. Nākamos trīs gadus viņš pavadīs, mācoties pareizus rituālus, lai pieradinātu Nagu pakļaut savu karali un atgūt zobu. [52]

Borobudurā Java ir viena no Budas relikvijām. [53]

Saskaņā ar leģendu Japānā 552. g. P.m.ē., tika mēģināts iznīcināt zobu relikviju, kas bija viena no pirmajām Budas valstīm, kas ieradās valstī, ar āmuru ietriecoties laktā, āmurs un laktas tika iznīcinātas, bet zobs nebija. [54] 593. gada 15. janvārī Soga no Umako pasūtīja Budas relikvijas, kas noglabātas pamatakmenī zem pagodas pīlāra Asuka-dera. [55] According to Japanese legends the tooth of Indras heaven would be stolen from Drona's turban by a demon called Sokushikki (demon fleet foot) however he was caught by an even faster divinity and the tooth was given to Indra. [32] Although no mention is made of Xuanzang specifically having a tooth, a Japanese tradition claims one was eventually taken by the monk Gishin and kept in Tendai and Fujiwara. [30]

Tongdosa temple, (one of the three Three Jewel Temples of Korea), was founded by Jajang-yulsa after he returned from a pilgrimage to China in 646 AD. The temple houses a robe, begging bowl and a piece of skull said to belong to Buddha. [56] Other temples built by Jajang also house relics. Bongjeongam hermitage is said to possess sarira from Gautama, while Sangwonsa houses bone setting relics. [57] [58] Additionally Jeongamsa Temple, and Beopheungsa Temple are said to contain relics. [59] At Bulguksa Temple in South Korea, beneath a three-story stone pagoda 46 sarira have been kept for over 1200 years, 2 more having appeared recently. [60]

It is said that Korean emperor Huizong tried to sink a tooth relic at sea but was unable to do so. [31]

Pha That Luang is the most important national symbol of Laos. Buddhist missionaries from the Mauryan Empire are believed to have been sent by the Emperor Ashoka, including Bury Chan or Praya Chanthabury Pasithisak and five Arahata monks who brought a holy relic (believed to be the breast bone) of Buddha to the stupa. [61]

In 2001, Mahindarama Buddhist Temple, located in George Town, became the first temple in Penang to house the relics of the Buddha. [62] [63] [64] The two bone fragments of the Buddha had been presented to the temple's Chief Monk, Ven. E. Indaratana Maha Thera, while he was in India during the previous year. The relics are currently on display within the temple's main prayer hall.

In 2012, a small portion of the Buddha's relics was presented by the Thai royal family to Wat Chetawan in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, as a token of goodwill of Thai Buddhists towards Malaysian Buddhists. [65] [66] The relics had been discovered in Uttar Pradesh, India in 1898, before being gifted by India's British authorities to Siam's King Chulalongkorn.

Fa Yu Chan Si temples crystal pagoda contains sarira from Gautama Buddha and other Buddhist masters.

In conjunction with 24 hours Metta around the World 2013, a silver-golden casket containing Gautama Buddha's relics was brought by Ven. Dhammananda from Sri Lanka to be enshrined in Samadhi Vihara, Shah Alam. [67]

According to legend, Abtai Sain Khan was given a Buddha relic by the third Dalai Lama. The fourteenth Dalai Lama has prayed for this relic during his visit to Mongolia in 2011 its location was kept a close secret for concern it would be taken by the Soviet government. [40]

The Shwedagon Pagoda in Myanmar houses 8 strands of Buddha's hair taken by his first 2 disciples Tapussa and Bhallika to the site where three relics of Buddha's previous incarnations had been enshrined. Shwedagon was created with the help of the King of Okkalapa and the Sule nat (spirit)s. Buddha's hairs are also said to be enshrined at Sule and Botataung Pagodas. [68] [69]

The Kanishka casket is said to have contained three bone fragments of the Buddha, [70] which were forwarded to Burma by the British following the excavation, [71] where they still remain in U Khandi's dazaung (hall).

The Uppatasanti Pagoda also holds a tooth relic from China. [72]

The Chakesadhatuvamsa, or chronicle of the six hair relics of the Buddha, was written in Myanmar. The text says that Buddha gave six hairs to disciples at Venuvana in Rajagrha. These were given to 6 bordering countries who had never seen the Buddha. [73] The stories say that when the Buddha came to Mon State to give sermons, he gave six of his hairs to hermits from Kyaiktiyo, Zinkyaik (to Tissa), Mount Zwegabin (to Thiha), Kaylartha, Kyaikdaeyone and Myathabeik. A pair of belu brothers from Kyaikhtisaung also received a hair. All the hermits and belus enshrined the hair in great stones. [74] [75]

Burmese and Sri Lankan tradition says that Trapusa and Bhallika lost some of the hair relics to the Naga king Jayesana who took them to worship in his undersea palace.

The Hledauk Pagoda in Burma crumbled during an earth quake in 1912 exposing 2 relic chambers. Inside was a vessel containing relics from the Buddha and small figures of bronze representing stages of his lives. [8]

On his way flying through the air with 499 disciples to Sunaparanta Buddha stopped at Saccabandha where he talked the heretic teacher of the same name into becoming an arhat. On his way home from Sunapranta Buddha stopped by the banks of the Nammada river where he was welcomed by a devote Buddhist naga king who asked for a memento to honor, so he left an impression of his footprint in the river bank. They visited Saccabandha again who asked for something to honor as well Buddha obliged by pressing his foot into solid stone. [76]

According to UNESCO, Ramagrama stupa is the only undisturbed original stupa containing relics of Lord Buddha built in the 6th century BCE. [77] Nepal believes Tilaurakot to be Kapilavastu, and nominated it along with Lumbini for world heritage status. An excavation at Tilaurakot in 1962 revealed ancient brick structures but no relics. [6] In 1970's thousands of Buddha relics were said to begin growing out of the east side of the stupa of Swayambhunath in Kathmandu. [13] According to Xuanzang, relics of Koṇāgamana Buddha were held in a stupa in Nigalisagar visited by Ashoka, in what is now southern Nepal. [78]

The stupa built in what is now Peshawar by Kanishka of the Kushan Empire in the second century has been described as one of the tallest in the world and has been visited by early Chinese Buddhist pilgrims such as Faxian, Sung Yun and Xuanxang. In peshawar Faxian reported in the fourth century that the Buddha's begging bowl held 4 liters and was made of stone, made of four bowls bestowed upon him by the four guardian gods of the four quarters of mount Vinataka surrounding mount Sumeru. [79] Another legend is of a Yuezhi king who wanted to take away the bowl but could not with the strength of eight elephants, so he constructed a stupa over it.

The stupa was excavated in 1908–1909 by a British archaeological mission where the Kanishka casket was discovered with three small fragments of bone. [80] Three pieces of bone (approx 1½ in. or 3.8 cm long) were found in a crystal reliquary in a bronze casket bearing an effigy of Kanishka and an inscription recording his gift. [81] [82] They were removed to Mandalay in 1910 by Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, the Governor-General of India, for safekeeping. [83] They were originally kept in a stupa in Mandalay but it has become dilapidated and is used as housing. The relics are being kept in a nearby monastery until funds can be found to build a new stupa to house the relics next to Mandalay Hill. The crystal reliquary holding the bones is now enclosed in a gold and ruby casket provided by Burmese devotees.

Xuanzang said that the Buddha's begging bowl had found its way to Persia after spending time in many different countries. It is said the bowl will one day be given to Maitreya Buddha. [84] According to Faxian however, Buddha's alms bowl took several hundred years to travel across several countries before being taken by a naga king. The bowl would then reappear at Mount Vinataka, where it would by divided into the original four bowls and given to the four guardian kings to bestow on Maitreya. Maitreya would then press the bowls together forming one again, with the next thousand buddhas repeating this same process using the same bowl. According to Daoxuan, the Buddha's bowl — given to him at the time he was offered milk rice — was made of clay. It was bestowed by a mountain deity who had been given the bowl by the previous Kassapa Buddha. The bowl was later repaired by Indra and the guardians of the four quarters crafted thousands of stone replicas, which were placed in thousands of stupas all over the world. [85]

In 2011 the head of the Buddhist Patriarchy of Sri Lanka met with Kirsan Ilyumzhinov to discuss the movement of relics from Sri Lanka to the Republic of Kalmykia. Former president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov will become the next guardian of these Buddha relics. [86]

The tooth relic is housed in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum in the Chinatown district of Singapore. [87] It is claimed the relic was found in a collapsed stupa in Myanmar. [88]

In the Mahavamsa, Ashoka chooses not to retrieve Buddha relics in the possession of Nagas at Ramagrama. It was said that on his deathbed Buddha told a prophecy that of the eight dronas of his body relics, one would be venerated by the Koliyas of Ramagrama, then the relics would belong to the Nagas until being enshrined in Sri Lanka. Ashoka is told more prophecy by arhats, who speak of the future enshrinement of these relics by king Dutthagamani. [89]

The two quarts of relics that were enshrined in the village Rāmagāma were, according to The Buddha's determination, destined to be enshrined in the Great Stūpa Ruvanveli. King Dutugemunu who, on the full-moon day of the month of Āsāëha (June–July), under the constellation of Uttarāsāëha, would officiate in the ceremony for the enshrining of the relics in the Great Stūpa, worshipped the Sangha (Order of monks) on the day before the full-moon day, reminded them that tomorrow is the appointed day for the enshrining of the relics and requested them to give him the relics. The Saïgha ordered then the novice Arahant Soõuttara, who was gifted with the six supernormal faculties, to bring the relics, which Arahant Soõuttara manages to bring and offer to the Sangha.

Tradition says that Trapusa and Bahalika visited Sri Lanka and brought a hair relic with them in a golden reliquary to Girihandu. Trapusa and Bhallika had initially been disgusted by the hair and fingernail relics. only after he explains the jataka tale of Sumedha laying his hair at the feet of Dipamkara are they convinced this is meritorious. [90]

Buddha is said to have given hair relics to Maha Sumana the god of Adams peak, which were enshrined at Mahiyangana he also left a footprint at Sumanakuta. [91]

In 1561 in Portuguese Goa, a tooth taken from Sri Lanka said to belong to the Buddha was crushed, burned in a brazier then tossed into the river in front of a crowd by archbishop Don Gaspar. [92] Don Juan Dharmapala the Christian king of Kotte claimed to have to Kandy tooth. However, according to the Culavamsa Konnappu Bandara who had betrayed the Portuguese also claimed to possess the tooth. He used his possession of the tooth along with his marriage to a Kandyan princess to seize the throne. [93] The celebrated procession of the tooth in Kandy coincides with an earlier celebration dedicated to Vishnu. [94]

King Devanampiyatissa built Thuparamaya in which was enshrined the collarbone of the Buddha. It is considered to be the first dagoba built in Sri Lanka. [95]

When the Danta and Hemamala family arrive in Sri Lanka in 362-409 CE, they deliver one of the four eye teeth relics to King Sirimeghavanna who places it with the bowl relic. The relics remain together in Anuradhapura for 600 years until being moved to the new capital of Polonnaruva at which point it becomes the most venerated relic in Sri Lanka. [96] It is believed the bowl produces rainfall, a fourteenth century legend says that king Upatissa put an end to a drought by filling the bowl with water, and sprinkling the ground while following a cart with a golden statue of Buddha. [97] It is said the Buddha's disciple Ananda had done with when Vaisali suffered from famine and pestilence from drought. In the twelfth century at Parakkamabahu's festival for the tooth relic a rain cloud filled the ponds but did not rain on the celebration.

Then king Dutugemunu received from the Sangha the Buddha's relics upon his head in a casket and departed from the golden pavilion in the midst of manifold offerings and honours made by gods and Brahmas. He circumambulated the relic-chamber three times, entered it from the east, and then laid the relic-casket on a couch of one koñi worth's silver that was arranged in the north side. An image of the Buddha was then, according to the Buddha's determination, created in the lion's reclining posture (sīhaseyya), and all the relics were enshrined within that image. When the enshrining of the relics in the Great Stūpa Ruvanveli was completed, the two novices Uttara and Sumana closed the relic-chamber with the stone-blocks that were previously hidden to be used as a lid.

In the Thupavamsa numerous types of beings attended the enshrinement of the relics into the Mahathupa including the Naga king Mahakala who until recently guarded them. The relics were to be placed atop a golden throne crafted by Visvakarman the divine artificer the throne brought by Indra. Brahma offers his invisible umbrella of sovereignty, with the king Dutthagamani offering his own. The arhat Indagutta creates a metal canopy over the universe, so that Mara will not interfere, as monks chanted the sutra pitaka. Dutthagamani ceremoniously enters with the urn atop his head but as he is about to place the urn on the golden throne, the relics rise into the air and form Buddha, with each of the 32 major signs and 8 lesser signs of a great man. In this form he performs the twin miracle of fire and water, fulfilling the fifth of his death bed resolutions. One hundred and twenty million gods and humans gain arhatship from this experience. The relics return to the urn and they are laid to rest and the chamber sealed with forty meter stone slabs. [98]

The Piprahwa relics were given to Rama V (the King of Siam) a couple of years after their discovery in 1898, where they still reside. [44] Rama V had Phu Khao Thong, a man-made mountain constructed at Wat Saket. After 1888 the Stupa would house a Buddha relic from Sri Lanka alongside relics from prisoners. [99] Phra Borommathat Chedi is the oldest stupa containing Buddha relics in Thailand. [100] Wat Phra That Doi Suthep was founded after a monk followed a dream and found a shoulder bone that glowed and replicated itself leading him to believe it was a Buddha relic. (phra that). [101] Wat Com Ping in northern Thailand claims to enshrine over 50,000 buddha relics. [13] Relics of the head were found in Teankam temple, Lampang province in 2007. The temple was built by King Indraditya in the 12th century. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

An exhibit donated by the Dalai Lama features relics from Gautama Buddha as well as 40 other Buddhist masters from India, Tibet and China taken with him out of Tibet after the 1959 invasion. The exhibit was the idea of Lama Zopa Rinpoche it started in 2001 and has toured 61 countries. [102]

Xa Loi Pagoda served as the headquarters for Buddhism in South Vietnam during the Vietnamese civil war, its construction began in 1956 to house remains of the Buddha. [103] Giác Lâm Pagoda has housed Buddha relics since they were brought to the temple from Sri Lanka by Narada in 1953. [104] Tịnh Xá Trung Tâm founded in 1965 also houses relics. [105]

It is said the placenta of Buddha ratnavyuha was taken by Brahma to be enshrined in a stupa. [106] When Buddha left the palace to seek enlightenment he severed his hair with a sword. According to theravada sources, throwing his top knot into the air, and says if he is to be Buddha it will remain in the sky. It stays at a height of one league, until it is taken by Indra to Trayastrimsa heaven. [107] Mulasarvastivada Vinaya recounts how a friend of Kasyapa Buddha named Ghatikara gives him a monastric robe, bowl, razor, girdle, needle and water strainer. In another version the bodhisattva encounters this divinity disguised as a hunter and trades him his benares silk robes which are enshrined in a catiya. Alternatively new robes came to Buddha from ten brothers from Kapilavastu who received hemp robes from their mother, about to parinirvanize they told her to give the robes to the Buddha foreseeing his birth. The mother gave the robes to her daughter near death who gave them to a tree spirit to give to the son of Suddhodana. Indra disguises as a hunter, then takes the robes from the tree and gives them to Buddha in exchange for the silk robes which he enshrines in heaven and dedicates a festival to the robes. [108] The bowl in which Buddha received milk rice after his long fast is said to have floated down the Nairanjana River before sinking down to the naga king Kala putting it with the bowls of the three previous Buddhas.


Sarnath: Where Buddha Spoke

One of the holiest Buddhist sites in the world, Sarnath is famous as the place where Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon. From then to the 12th century CE – nearly 1,700 years – it remained a centre of great learning, a place of pilgrimage and a vihara (monastery) for monks and scholars.

Just 10 km north-east of Varanasi, near the confluence of the Ganga and Varuna Rivers in Uttar Pradesh, Sarnath was initially known as ‘Isipatana’, ‘where the holy men landed’ in the early Buddhist Pali text, and ‘Mrigadava’ or ‘deer park’. Legend has it that a Bodhisattva turned himself into a deer and offered his life to a king instead of the doe that the latter was planning to kill. The king was so moved that he created the park as a sanctuary for deer.

The later name ‘Sarnath’ too has a deer connection. It is an abbreviation of the word ‘Saranganatha’, which means ‘Lord of the Deer’. It is considered an epithet for Shiva, who is frequently represented holding a deer in his left hand. A modern shrine of Mahadeva can be seen on a mound at Sarnath.

It is at this deer park, a part of which still exists adjoining the archaeological complex at Sarnath, that the Buddha is believed to have delivered his first sermon after he attained enlightenment under a Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, in the 6th century BCE.

But why did he choose Sarnath? Buddhist texts tell you that the five men who had accompanied Buddha on his journey of asceticism, and later abandoned him, had settled in Sarnath. So when Buddha gained enlightenment, he felt they should be the first to know what he had learned. So he proceeded to Sarnath and preached his teachings here for the first time. Buddha’s first teaching is known as the Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra, the ‘turning of the wheel of law’.

The Sutra is one of the most important sermons in Buddhism and, through it, the Buddha explained the Four Noble Truths and the teachings associated with it. The first truth is that there is sorrow (dukha) in this world the second relates to the origin and cause of sorrow the third explains the cessation of sorrow and the fourth expounds the Eightfold Noble Path (arya-ashtangika-marga), which leads to the end of sorrow and to the attainment of peace, enlightenment and nirvāna.

Many historians believe that Buddha chose Sarnath due to its proximity to Varanasi, which by that time was already a centre of great learning. This would give him a chance to have discourses with learned men and take his learnings to the very doorstep of Vedic orthodoxy. Incidentally, Sarnath later also flourished because of the kings and wealthy merchants based in Banaras (now Varanasi) who patronised Buddhism.

According to Buddhist texts, Buddha also laid the foundation of his sangha or the order of monks at Sarnath. Yasa, the son of a rich householder in Banaras, together with his 54 friends, was attracted by his teachings and became his disciple. With them, and the first five monks, Buddha founded the first Sangha of 60 monks and sent them in various directions to preach his Dharma.

Much of what you see in Sarnath today, however, is from the time of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (r. 269 – 232 BCE). After the famous Battle of Kalinga, when Ashoka embraced the Buddhist faith, he began building several monuments at Sarnath, one of which was the Dharmarajika Stupa, which was crowned by a monolithic railing.

Ashoka also installed a monolithic pillar topped by a lion capital with a crowning Dharmachakra here. This lion capital was later adopted by India as the national emblem. This pillar was inscribed with an Ashokan edict in the Brahmi script, in which the emperor warns monks and nuns against creating schisms or divisions in the Sangha.

The stupa which stands tall at Sarnath today is the Dhamekh Stupa, which also seems to have had its origin in Ashoka’s time. Excavations also revealed more than a dozen railing pillars near the main shrine dated to the 1st century BCE, probably installed by the Shunga rulers (2nd to 1st century BCE). When you look at the Dhamekh Stupa, halfway up the base, there are eight niches which must have held images. Immediately below them runs a broad course of elaborate carving with geometrical and floral patterns combined with birds and human figures.

Sarnath then came under the Kushanas in 1st century CE and many new monuments were added. In the third year of Kushan Emperor Kanishka’s reign, one Bhikshu Bala of Mathura established a colossal Bodhisattva image in red sandstone. This period also saw a new inscription being added to the Ashokan pillar. This second inscription refers to the 40th year of Ashvaghosha, a ruler of Kaushambi, who also held sway over Banaras and Sarnath. There is a third inscription on the pillar, written in the early Gupta script, which mentions the teachers of the Sammitiya school, one of the earliest schools of Buddhism. Sadly, the pillar is in pieces, with some of the pieces on display in the Sarnath Museum and some on site.

Under the Guptas (3rd-6th century CE), Sarnath saw a lot of activity and art flourished. The Chinese monk Fa-Hien, who visited Sarnath during the period of Chandragupta II (390 CE), reports that there were four stupas and two monasteries here. The Dharmarajika Stupa seems to have been enlarged and the Dhamekh Stupa was encased with floral designs carved in stone. The Gupta Empire was greatly weakened by repeated invasions of the Huna people (5th/6th century CE) and this impacted Sarnath, whose structures and statues suffered their wrath.

The north of India then came under the rule of the Vardhana Dynasty (6th and 7th century CE), whose ruler Harshavardhana (r. 606 – 647 CE) initiated the restoration of Sarnath. Chinese monk Hiuen Tsang, who visited Sarnath during this time, has left accounts of its monuments. He saw both the Dharmarajika Stupa and the stone pillar of Ashoka, which he stated was shining like a mirror. He was probably referring to the famous Mauryan polish. He also said that the great monastery had 1,500 resident monks and the main shrine had a big metal image of Buddha in the attitude of ‘turning the wheel’.

Sarnath continued to prosper during the reign of the Pala kings (8th to 12th century CE). But in 1017 CE, when Banaras faced the brunt of Mahmud Ghazni’s attacks, the monuments of Sarnath too were damaged.

After that, efforts were made to resurrect Sarnath. The last great monument was added in Sarnath in the 12th century. Govindachandra (1114-1154 CE) of the Gahadavala Dynasty, which ruled parts of present-day Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, had made himself master of Kanauj, Ayodhya and Banaras. His queen Kumaradevi was a pious Buddhist and she built a large monastery at Sarnath called the Dharmachakra-Jina-Vihara.

Another notable monument at Sarnath is the Chaukhandi Stupa, a lofty brick structure crowned with an octagonal tower. Interestingly, the octagonal tower is a Mughal monument built by Govardhan, son of Raja Todarmal (governor under Emperor Akbar) in 1588 CE. It was built to commemorate a visit by Emperor Humayun to Sarnath.

Sarnath today is a collection of vast ruins. Among these, the remains of the Dharmarajika Stupa stand out. Believe it or not but the stupa was pulled down by Jagat Singh, the Diwan of the Banaras king, Chet Singh, to be used as building materials for the construction of a market place in the city which the king also named after himself.

In 1815, Colonel Colin Mackenzie, the first Surveyor General of India (who also discovered the ruins of Hampi in Karnataka), started the first systematic excavation of the site of Sarnath. He was followed by Alexander Cunningham, founder of the Archaeological Survey of India, who during his excavations found a relic box that seemed to have been displaced by the workers of Jagat Singh. It was a round sandstone box that contained a cylindrical marble box full of bones, gold and silver ornaments, pearls and rubies. Cunningham later presented it to the museum of the Bengal Asiatic Society.

The last major excavation at Sarnath was conducted by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921-22. During all the excavations, a large number of statues, stone umbrellas, inscriptions, bas reliefs and other sculptural panels were collected and these are on display at the Sarnath Museum. Instead of the original ones, the ASI has installed terracotta replicas to provide a sense of what the place would have looked like hundreds of years ago.

Along with the Dharmarajika Stupa, the Dhamekh Stupa, Ashokan pillar, and the remains of monasteries and votive stupas, Sarnath reflects the evolution of Buddhism and its heritage for more than a millennium and a half. It is truly a macrocosm of the Buddhist world in India, and a radiating centre of light throughout the Buddhist world.


Saturs

The sculpture is symbolic of the Saranath itself, where the Buddha initiated his teachings, which are recorded on the Pali Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. In this sculpture, the Buddha is seated in vajra-paryankasana (also termed padmāsana) and is delivering the first sermon to the five disciples shown on the pedestal with the Dharmachakra in its centre. It is flanked by a pair of gazelles, symbolizing the deer park (Mrigadava) at Sarnath. The five disciples were Kaundinya, Assaji, Bhaddiya, Vappa and Mahanama, all of them Brahmins who had known Siddharth in the past. They are known as the Pañcavaggiyā monks. In addition to the five, there is a kneeling woman and a child. The throne has a makara and a vyala (shardula) on both sides, as required by convention. On both sides of the circular ornate prabhamandala, there are two flying gandharvas bearing chamara or flowers.

The hands of the Buddha are in the dharmachakra pravartana mudra, as of the Buddha is rotating the wheel of Dharma. The Dharma Chakra represents the dharma as preached by the Shakyamuni Buddha. According to some scholars, the dharmachakra pravartana mudra was first used by the sculptors at Sarnath.

Sarnatha is intimately connected by the Dharma-chakra. The Lion Capital of Ashoka originally supported a large Dharma-chakra (thus the lions served as the support for the Dharma Chakra). During the excavations, the stone Dharma Chakra was found broken. The Dharma Chakra Jina Vihar at Sarnath was built by Kumaradevi born in the Pala family, a wife of Gahadavala Govindachandra (c. 1114–1155 CE), which was the last structured constructed before the devastation of Sarnath.

Of the hundreds of Buddha images produced by the Sarnath School, most significant being the Dharmachakrapravartana image of Lord Buddha which is symbolic of the First Sermon preached by the Master at the Deer Parks in Sarnath.

Krishna Dev described the sculpture as follows. [2] "This outstanding image radiates the Master's adamant resolve and strength, combined with complete equanimity, compassion and tender grace. The inspired artist of this masterpiece has caught the moment when the great teacher who had achieved Supreme Enlightenment after six years of strenuous exertion, felt overwhelmed with compassion for the suffering humanity and condescended to turn the Wheel of Law. The momentous events of the First Sermon and the founding of the Buddhist Sangha are immortalised in this unique sculpture .. Combining elemental strength with tender grace and subtle delicacy with transcendental sublimation, this luminous image indeed constitutes a masterpiece of the Indian, nay World art, enshrining the noble teachings of Lord Buddha."

Radha Kumud Mookerji, archaeologist and a member of the parliament, writes [3] "The Sarnath seated image of the Buddha in the act of his preaching the first sermon is considered as one of the masterpieces of Indian Art, and of its Gupta style marked by its symbolism. .. His hands are shown in the position known as Dharma- Chakra-pravartana-mudra. Indeed, there was a great development in the mudras in the Buddhist Iconography of the time."

John Huntington [4] analyzed this sculpture in detail. He writes "The image is also highly nuanced and to the aware observer has a vastly complex Buddhological message, to be read on several levels."

Catherine Becker writes [5] "This Gupta period depiction of the Buddha turning the wheel of dharma in the deer park at Sarnath is arguably one of the most famous Buddha images from ancient South Asia - a canonical example of the "golden age" of Gupta sculpture."

After the excavations, a new temple was commissioned by the Maha Bodhi Society for construction in 1931. The frescoes on the walls were painted by the noted Japanese painter, Kosetsu Nosu. [6] The focal point of the temple is a gilded replica of the famous sculpture of the Buddha in the Dharmachakra Pravartana mudra. Anagarika Dharmapala, the founder of the Maha Bodhi Society actively guided the construction of the temple.

The image is sometimes referred to as simply as the Saranath Buddha. This is one of the most reproduced Buddha images. Major reproductions include the following.

  • Birla Mandir Delhi Buddha Vihar, inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1939.
  • On one face of the Rajgir Vishwa Shanti Stupa
  • India gifted a 16-feet high Buddha statue to Sri Lanka to be installed at the sacred Sri Dalada Maligawa temple at Kandy in 2010. [7]
  • Replica at the Luoyang White Horse Temple within the Sanchi stupa replica (Yindufodian) [8]
  • Replica at the Palelai temple Singapore. , Singapore

Small as well as large replicas in wood, marble, bronze, terracotta and plaster are widely reproduced and sold in India and overseas using the term "Sarnath Buddha".


Chinese Buddhist Temple

At a distance of 500 m from Sarnath Railway Station, and 9 km from Varanasi Junction, the Chinese Temple is a Buddhist temple situated in Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh. Next to Mulagandha Kuti Vihar, it is one of the popular Buddhist temples in Sarnath and among the prominent Sarnath tourist places.

The Chinese Buddhist Temple in Sarnath was established in 1939 by the abbot of Beijing, Tao-Kai, and the president of the Eastern Asian Buddhist association, Fa-Yuan-Tsu. The gate and compound wall were erected in 1952. The building is in a bright shade of red and yellow and has beautiful Chinese designs. Inside the Chinese Temple, one can see various statues of different sizes and the Chinese lanterns hanging on the walls.

There is a huge map of the route taken by the Chinese scholar Hiuen-Tsang in the 7th Century AD in the time of the great king Harshavardhana. An important feature of the Chinese Temple is the representation of the life of Buddha through photos and write-ups in Hindi, English, and Chinese on a huge board. It gives a thorough insight of the same in the absence of pilgrims that are present at most sites in Sarnath. It is a relatively simple structure, but immensely peaceful and tranquil.


Thai Temple Sarnath

Amongst those popular Buddhist pilgrimage sites in Sarnath, Thai Temple is one of the most recent additions. This magnificent temple was erected by the Thai dignitaries who visited Sarnath in the year 1993. Adorned with manicured gardens, the temple is reckoned to be one of the most beautiful places to visit in Sarnath. Also touted as Wat Thai, the temple complex also includes an old tree which is muffled up with a striking shawl of gold leaf. An important highlight of the Thai Temple in Sarnath is the 80-foot tall image of Buddha in a standing position. Besides this imposing statue, the temple also houses three other effigies of Lord Buddha in various postures that are placed beneath a tree. Just before the entrance of the main temple, there are images of laughing Buddha along with an enactment of Lord Buddha preaching his apostles. Another statue of Lord Buddha is in Bhumisparsha mudra where he is touching the earth to summon the mortal spirits can be seen in the temple. Giving an alluring touch to the entire complex of this popular Buddhist temple in Sarnath are the fountains with gorgeous lotus flowers. Apart from this, Thai songs and slogans can also be heard chanted at the temple.

Location Address

Rishpattan Rd, Near Sarnath Museum, Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221007.

Visiting Timings

The temple of Wat Thai remains open all days a week. One can visit the place any time from sunrise to sunset.


Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

Sarnath is a Buddhist pilgrimage site which is located close to the confluence of the Ganga and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh. There are four popular Buddhist pilgrimages in the world that are assumed to be sanctioned by Gautama Buddha himself of which one of them is Sarnath, the others being Lumbini, Bodh Gaya and Kushinagara. Gautama Buddha taught his first sermon in the Deer Park, which is now a major attraction for tourists visiting Sarnath. He also followed The Four Noble Truths and preached the Eight-fold path for a happy and content life.

Sarnath is sometimes also referred to as Isipatana. There are some ancient edifices and Buddhist architecture that stood the test of time. The world famous Ashoka pillar at Sarnath is a structure with the Ashoka Chakra that consists of four wheels at four cardinal directions and between them are four distinct animals. Four lions are rested on top of the Ashoka Chakra. The Bodhi Tree is also a crowd puller as it is a part of the actual Bodhi Tree from Bodh Gaya. Then there is the Sarnath museum which is cited by the Archaeological Survey of India as the most antiquated museum. It contains all the Buddhist discoveries and ancient remains of the Sarnath archaeological site. The Chaukhandi Stupa is a terraced temple which marks the spot where Gautama Buddha and his disciples had their first encounter on their way to Sarnath from Bodh Gaya. The Stupa has Buddha&rsquos relics enshrined with an architecture that is an amalgamation of diverse cultures. The Dhamek Stupa was built by Emperor Ashoka to radiate the teachings of Buddha all over the world.

Buddhist art and architecture have flourished and people from across the world flock to Sarnath today to witness the histrionic monuments of the bygone era. Buddhism is a dominant faith in countries like Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Japan, Singapore, China and many others.



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